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SERMONS 


MASTERS AND SERVANTS, 


PUBLISHED IN THE YEAR 1743, 


rev. THOMAS BACON, 

Minister of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in Maryland. 

NOW REPUBLISHED WITH OTHER 

TRACTS AND DIALOGUES 

On the same subject , and recommended to all 
MASTERS AND MISTRESSES 
To be used in their families. 


rev. WILLIAM MEADE. 


iDincijegtcr, ©a. 

JOHjY I1EISKELL, Printer. 



PREFACE. 


The Editor of this volume offers it to 
all Masters and Mistresses in our South¬ 
ern States, with the anxious wish and 
devout prayer, that it may prove a bles¬ 
sing to them and their household.—lie 
considers himself most happy in having 
met with the several pieces which com¬ 
pose it, and could not with a quiet con¬ 
science refrain from affording to others 
the opportunity of profiing thereby. 

The subject treated of must be acknow * 
ledged, by all Christians, to be of great 
importance, and 1 hope it will seem to 
them also, that it is handled in a manner 
worthy of the theme. 

It was the first intention of the Edi¬ 
tor to have prefixed an introduction of 
some length, and in it to have urged the 
great importance of affording religious 
instruction to our slaves, by some, out of 
those many and powerful considerations, 
which ought to compel us to this duty ; 
and also to have answered some of those 
vain objections, which even good people, 



as an excuse for their neglect, raise up 
against this charitable work ; but a pe¬ 
rusal of the volume itself, particularly 
of the sermons addressed to masters, sa¬ 
tisfied him that it was quite needless, and 
might even we ken the cause. In those 
sermons it was found, that every argu 
ment which was likely to convince and 
persuade, was so forcibly exerted, and 
every objection that could possibly be 
made, so fully answered,—and, in fine, 
every thing that ought to be said, so well 
said, and the same things so happily con¬ 
firmed, by the interesting stories and di¬ 
alogues which follow, that it was deem¬ 
ed best to refer the reader for the true 
nature and object of the book, to the 
book itself.—It is the earnest request of 
the Editor, that all who take it up will 
give it a careful examination through¬ 
out, before they form an opinion or pass 
sentence.—Let all whom it may con¬ 
cern, lay the subject before God and 
their consciences, and, after mature ueli- 
lieration, determine upon the course they 
will pursue. 

The Editor invites the attention of 
Christians of all denominations, to a sub¬ 
ject in which they are all equally con¬ 
cerned; and especially beseeches the mi • 



V 


nisters of the gospel to take if into seri¬ 
ous consideration, as a matter for which 
they also will have to give an account; 
For did not Christ die for th*se pooT crea- 
tures as well as any other? and is it not 
given in charge to his ministers to gather 
his sheep into the fold ? 

The Editor thinks proper to mention, 
that this volume is only the promise and 
forerunner of others, on the same subject, 
which, by the blessing of heaven, will fol¬ 
low at proper intervals.—In this present 
work, little else is attempted, than to 
state the duty and persuade to the per¬ 
formance of it; it is hoped that a desire 
will be kindled within the breasts of ma¬ 
ny, to do something in behalf of these 
our ignorant fellow-creatures. To ena¬ 
ble them to put this wish into execution, 
it will be desirable to have in each fami¬ 
ly some books beside the bible, wdnch 
contain tracts addressed particularly to 
persons in their station, which may be 
read to them on proper occasions by any 
member of the family.—The Editor is 
now engaged in collecting such pieces; 
but in the mean time, let all who feel the 
duty, begin at once, and, out of the holy 
Bible, read to them the words of ever¬ 
lasting life, and pray with them and for 



VI 


them, to that God, to whom sincere pray¬ 
ers are never addressed in vain. 

To that God he commends them, him¬ 
self, and this work. 



SERMON' I. 


COLOSSIANS IV. 1. 


Masters give unto your Servants that which is 
just and equal , knowing that ye also have a 
Master in Heaven. 

IF we take but a slight view of human Dature, 
we shall soon discover ourselves to be poor, weak, 
dependent creatures, who, taken singly, can nei¬ 
ther guard against numberless dangers that con¬ 
tinually surround us, nor procure many of the 
simplest, and most common necessaries or com¬ 
forts of life, without some assistance from others. 
Whence it plainly appears, that, as our chief and 
ultimate dependence is upon Almighty God, who 
hath created, and supplies the means of nur well¬ 
being to us ; so it hath pleased him, by variously 
distributing those means into different hands, to 
make us depend, more or less, one upon another. 
Thus hath our heavenly Father thought fit to es¬ 
tablish the ordinary course of his divine provi¬ 
dence for the common benefit of bis children 
and thus hath he laid the foundation of justice 
and equity between man and man, by making each 
in hi» several station, conducive to the preserva¬ 
tion and benefit of the whole, and, in return, to 
receive protection and assistance from others 
Hence it is, that every service or help which 
one man affords another, requires its correspon¬ 
dent return:—and those acts of kiudnessi and 
A 



2 


their returns, which are clue from one person to 
another, according to the several circumstances 
or relations in which they stand, with .respect to 
each other, are called relative duties. —These, 
my brethren, are the bands of society, by which 
families, neighborhoods and nations are knit to¬ 
gether :—by these we are enabled to live comfor¬ 
tably in this world ;—and for the due observation 
of these, are all human laws framed and enacted. 
Hence it is, that subjects owe honor and obedience 
to their princes and governors, in return for the 
protection they receive in the possession of their 
lawful rights and liberties :—Hence that duty, 
love, and respect, which children owe to their na¬ 
tural parents, in return for the being, support, 
education, and other advantages they receive 
through their means.—Hence that mutual friend¬ 
ship and assistance which neighbors owe, one to 
another :—And hence that care, fidelity, and hon¬ 
est labour, which servants owe to their masters 
and mistresses, in return for the wages or main, 
tenance which they give them. 

There are, indeed, certain duties of benevolence 
and charity, which carry no visible earthly ad¬ 
vantages with them, but rather the contrary— 
aud yet are necessary for the general benefit of 
society, in which all ought to partake :—such a6 
contributing with our substance, our labours, or 
otherwise, ro the supply of the poor and needy, 
whether their wants be of a bodily or spiritual 
nature. — But here the Almighty himself inter¬ 
poses, and promises a reward in the same propor¬ 
tion, m if the kindness were done to himself. — He 
that hath pity on the poor, saith Solomon , lendeth 
unto the Lord ; and that which he hath given, he 
will pay him again.*— Whosoever, saith our Sa- 
♦ Pror. xix. 7 



3 


viour, shall give you a cup of water to drink in 
my name , because ye belong to Christ, verily l say 
unto you he shall not loose his reward .f 

How wonderful are the schemes of an all-wise 
Providence !—How beautiful that disposal of hu¬ 
man affairs, by which the particular wants of one 
are supplied out of the abundance of another, who 
in return is furnished with what himself stands 
equally in need of!—How high an entertainment 
does it afford the contemplative mind, to view the 
several degrees of mankind thus administering 
to the comfort and necessities of each other, and 
exchanging the produce of their labours and pos¬ 
sessions, to the mutual benefit and advantage of 
eaeh !—And how kindly and seasonably do the 
divine rewards come in, to stir up men to the per¬ 
formance of charitable and benevolest offices, 
where human returns are not to be hoped for !— 
Happy indeed, should vve all be, if this mutual 
commerce were honestly and conscientiously car¬ 
ried on by all parties :—and that no evil bias of 
passion, pride, or self-interest, were to hinder 
men from giving unto all that which is just and 
equal !—But the undue practices of a mistaken, 
covetous world, often run counter to the kind de¬ 
signs of Providence, and cause that deformed ap¬ 
pearance which is too visible iu the conduct of 
human affairs, notwithstanding the sanction ot 
divine and human laws. The plain rules of jus- 
tice and equity tira too often forgot* end wealth 
and power trade use of, as distinctions, to set 
persons above the ordinary precepts of social vir¬ 
tues. Things are too often judged to be right or 
wrong, not from the nature of the facts, but from 
the difference of people’s circumstancesso 
that what shall be approved of in the behaviour 
■f Mark is- 41 



:4 

of one, shall be highly condemned in another, 
only because the first is perhaps a rich ora free 
man, and the latter a poor man, or, it may, be a 
slave :—whereas Almighty God makes no such 
distinctions, for with him there is no respect of 
persons: —He looketh upon an action as it is in 
itself, and the heart of the person who does it; 
and hath the same reward ior those who do that 
tvhich is equal and just , and the same punish¬ 
ment for those who do otherwise, let their stations 
and circumstances in this world be ever so differ¬ 
ent. For, when we die and are laid down in the 
common bosom of the earth, all outward distinc¬ 
tions vanish, aud the rank we held in the world, 
will be no farther concerned in the question, than 
whether we have behaved well or ill; whether we 
have done what was just and equal in it or not ? 

Next to our children aud brethren by blood, our 
servants, aud especiallj 7 our slaves, are certainly 
in the nearest relation to us. They are an imme¬ 
diate and necessary part of our households, by 
whose labours and assistance we are enabled to 
enjoy the gifts of Providence in ease and plenty ; 
and surely we owe them a return of what is just 
and equal for the drudgery and hardships they go 
through in our service. This, nature, and plain 
unassisted reason might teach us» But when we 
farther consider it as a positive command of Al¬ 
mighty God, who is our as well as their master 
in Heaven , it must needs receive a vast additional 
force, and convince us that our want of love and 
gratitude to these poor serviceable creatures, 
must be attended with the highest danger ;—the 
danger of bringing the wrath and indignation of 
our heavenly master upon our heads ;—that great 
master , to whom we are as much accountable as 
they are, and iudeed for more than they can be, 



because more is committed to our charge ;— For 
unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall much 
be required .* 

To speak at large upon all the different branches 
of the duty of masters to their servauts and slaves, 
and to shew in every particular tvhctt is just and 
equal towards them, would extend far beyond the 
limits of my present design ;—besides, tn&Dy of 
them are often occasionally taken notice of in 
other discourses, when they fall in with the sub¬ 
ject.—I shall therefore coufiue myself to one, and 
that indeed a principal branch of this duty, viz. 
The indispensible obligation every Master and 
Mistress lies under, of bringing up their slaves in 
the knowledge and fear of Almighty God. 

To his honor aud glory is this attempt entirely 
dedicated, and his blessing and assistance do I 
most humbly and earnestly beg, in this and all 
other undertakings, for the good of the souls com¬ 
mitted to my charge, and the advancement of his 
kingdom upon earth : To which effect, I request 
your joint prayers and supplications to the throne 
of Grace, in the name and for the sake jof our 
blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Chbist. 

And now, dear Christian brethren, let me intreat 
your patient and candid attention. The cause I 
am about to plead is that of God and religion.— 
Our blessed Saviour himself, who died for all, and 
would have all men to be saved, and to come unto 
the knowledge of the truth ,f hath a near personal 
interest in it: as the souls I now would recom¬ 
mend to your care have an equal share with ours 
in his most precious blood, aud consequently are 
equally dear to him. I may then say, as Moses 
did when he came down from the Mount with the 
law of God in his hand, and saw the bulk of the 
* Luke xii. 48 +1 Tim. ii. 4. 

AS 



6 


people in a state of Idolatry, Who is on the 
Lord's side ? let him come unto me *—And I 
doubt not, my brethren, but all you who are on the 
side of God and religion ;—all you who are con* 
cerned for the honor of Christ, and for promoting 
the happiness of those souls he died to save, will 
heartily and zealously join with me in your en¬ 
deavours to that great and glorious end ; and 
strive to shake Satan out of that seat in which he 
hath, to our shame and reproach, so long estab¬ 
lished himself, and to erect the throne and king¬ 
dom of Gob in its place. This is a cause in 
which we are sure of God’s favour and protec. 
tion :—a cause in which his glory and majesty 
are highly concerned ;—a cause in which we may 
depend upon his gracious assistance, and in which 
his holy spirit will go, as it were, hand in hand 
along with ns. 

The indispensible obligation which all masters 
and mistresses lie under, of bringing up their 
slaves in the knowledge and fear of God, seems 
to be bnt little understood, or however is, in fact, 
but little taken notice of among us. In order 
therefore, to make it more plain, and by God’s 
blessiug to stir us up to perform it more faithful¬ 
ly than we have hitherto done, it may be proper 
to consider. 

X. The nature of this obligation, 

II. The advantages attending a due compli¬ 
ance therewith, 

III. The common excuses and objections which 
are made concerning it, 

IV. In what manner this duty may best be per¬ 
formed, to the discharging of our consciences, 
and with the greatest probability of success. 

*£xod, sxxii. 26 


7 


And first, concerning the nature of this great 
and iadispensible obligation. 

The law of nature, as well as the revealed law 
of God, will teach os, that Masters ought to give 
unto their servants that which is just avd equal.— 
No w f —slaves are so absolutely in the power of their 
owners, that they have no property of their own : 
the whole labor and (oil of their lives belonging 
to their Masters and Mistresses. Can we then 
be said to give thorn that which is just and equal, 
if we do not make them a full return of every 
thing which their circumstances and condition 
require at our hands ?—And when they withhold 
nothing from us, but spend the whole of their 
lives in our service, shall we be so unjust as to 
bestow only the worst and detain the best and 
most needful articles from them ?■—It is true, wo 
make no formal contract with our slaves. We 
purchase them as we do other things, which from 
the time of sale are absolutely at our own dispo¬ 
sal. But, surely, it was never yet disputed whe¬ 
ther that very purchase does not oblige us to fur¬ 
nish them with all necessaries suitable to their 
condition. It may, perhaps, be said, that they 
have a maintenance for their labour, and is not 
that sufficient ?—Alas ! my hrethren, this is no 
more than we bestow’ upon our horses, our dogs,; 
or other useful creatures about our houses:—we 
give these a bodily maintenance, and supply them 
with food and shelter suited to their natures?— 
nndifwekuew any other wants of such dumb 
brutes, we would surely take care to supply them, 
as we do medicines when we know them to bo 
sick or disordered by any hurl, strain, &c. But 
pray, my brethren, have men and women no far¬ 
ther wants than just what relates to their bodily 
sustenance ? When we have provided for them, 



8 


as we would for beasts of burden* that is, what- 
ever is necessary for keeping them iu health and 
strength to do our w’ork, have they no other wants 
worth minding ?—And alter keeping in repair as 
long as they will last, as vve would a plough, or a 
cart, is what remains of them of no more value 
than to be thrown upon a dunghill to rot, or cast 
into the fire ? Have they not souls to be saved as 
well as us, and as capable of happiness as ours 
are ? Hath not God the same regard for them ? 
And did not Christ, who died for all men, pay as 
great a price for their souls as for any of ours ? — 
If then we provide ever so well for their bodies, 
and at the same time suffer their souls to perish 
through our default, have we not put them off 
with the worst, and defrauded them of the best 
and most valuable part of their wages ? And 
how can we be said, in such a melancholy case, 
to have done that which is just and equal to those 
who have given us all they bad here, and have 
lost, by our neglect, all the good things they had 
to expect hereafter ?—Nay, have been suffered by 
us to fall into dreadful, everlasting misery, for 
want of a conscientious care on our parts to pre¬ 
vent it ? 

It would be a dreadful charge upon the high and 
lofty one who inhabiteth eternity * (who worketh 
all thkigs after the counsel of his own will t ,—the 
depth of the riches of whose wisdom and know¬ 
ledge is unfathomable and kisjudgments unsearch¬ 
able §) to say, that his Providence ordereth any 
thing without some determinate good purpose :— 
or to say of him, whose tender mercies are overall 
hisworksft, that there can be any part of his crea¬ 
tures, much less of mankind, to which he hath no 

* Isa. Ivii. 15. t Ephes. i. II. 

§ Rom. xi. 33. )j Psalm, cx.lv. 9. 



9 


particular regard, and whose good he doth oat 
consult in his disposal of them in the world.—-We 
cannot but acknowledge, that our slaves are given 
us for our benefit, and that it is a peculiar favour 
of Providence that we can be supplied with them 
in these colonies, w here the nature of our busi¬ 
ness is such, that we cannot well do without 
them :—And pray, my brethren, shall we have 
such injurious thoughts ot our great creator, W'ho 
made them as well as us, as to imagine he had no 
viewB to their advantage in sending them over to 

ns ?_Can we be so meanly selfish, or entertain 

such high notions of the degree of favour we stand 
in with the king of heaven,*as to suppose he in¬ 
tended all the good to as, and none to them ?—«* 
What have we done for him, that can entitle us 
to privileges of so extraordinary a nature ?—Or, 
what meritorious services have we performed, 
that could plaee us in a rank so much superior to 
them ?—If we consult saint Paul, he will tell us, 
that all boasting is excluded j.:—If we eonsult our 
blessed saviour, he will teach us, that when we 
shall have done, all,those thing&which are comman¬ 
ded us, we are still unprofitable, servants , we have 
done only that which was rtur duty to do t:—and 
if we consult our own consciences, I am alraid 
the best of us will meet with many heavy accusa¬ 
tions of wilful breaches of Duty, as well as sad 
neglects;—more than sufficient to convince us that 
we have, in fact, been very unprofitable servants, 
deserving punishments rather than rewards.—■ 
Since therefore we have no better claim to God’s 
extraordinary favour, and since it is so plain as 
he that runs may read§, that oui Almighty Vlaker 
did intend some particular advantage to these 

4 Rom. iii. 27. t Luke zviil 10 

$ Hab. ii. 2 



10 


poor creatures, as well as us, in sending tleera a- 
rnong us ; let us fairly and impartially examine of 
what nature this ean possibly be j—or in what 
respect their condition is changed for the bet¬ 
ter ? 

Now, we cannot pretend that they gain much 
by it in this life :—for there is little to be found 
in their worldly circumstances preferahle to w hat 
they might have enjoyed any where else ;—them¬ 
selves, their children, and latest posterity being 
bound up to a stale of servitude, and tbe whole 
produce of their lives and labour bestowed upon 
their several proprietors.—And say then, my bre¬ 
thren, what other benefit could the Almighty 
design them, by fixing their lot among us, than to 
supply the means of securing a better provision 
fur their souls, by sending them into a country 
where they may be broaglit up in his knowledge 
and fear, and instructed in the way which leads to 
eternal happiness ?—Or supposingsome temporal 
advantages in their living among a civilized peo¬ 
ple, where their lives are geenred under the pro¬ 
tection of the laws; which (throwing religion aud 
a future state out of the question, is, 1 am afraid, 
a very disputable point) shall we not be forced 
to ow n, that this, namely, their happiness in the 
life to come, is the great and principal one, to 
which the others are no more than appendages? 
—Is not this a design every way suitable to tbe 
tenderness and mercy of our kind creator?— Atvd 
shall we sit still, as if we were no way concerned 
in bringing it to effect?—Or shall we nut rather 
think it our indispensible duty to labour with all 
our might, that these great ends of divine provi¬ 
dence may be accomplished among us, and that 
these poor people may receive their good * Things 
* Luke xvi. 25 



11 

in heaves, since, it is plain, they cannot enjoy 
them upon earth ? 

We are commanded by our blessed saviour, to 
be merciful, even as our father, which is in hea¬ 
ven, is merciful. —Now the great tnerey of God 
hath been shewn to us, iu revealing to us the way 
of salvation, through our Lord Jesus Chuist.— 
If, therefore^ we would comply with this great 
precept, and be merciful , as he is merciful, we can¬ 
not surely perform it more effectually, than iu 
shewing the same he hath shewn to us, by hold¬ 
ing forth the light of the gospel to these poor 
creatures, now sitting in darkness, and in the 
valley of the shadoiv of death ; and by putting 
them in the road towards heaven, and guiding 
their feet into the way of peace§, as he hath done 
to us. 

The seventh day was set apart as a day of rest 
and devotion ; not only as a memorial of the cre¬ 
ation, but to the Israelites was also to be a perpe¬ 
tual remembrance of their delivery from the bon¬ 
dage of the Egyptians: —Whence the precept of 
resting on the Sabbath is said to relate to servants 
in particular ; viz. that thy man-servant and thy 
maidservant may rest ns well as thou. —And 
hence they are expressly enjoined to remember, 
that their forefathers had been servants in the 
land of Egypt ; from whence GOD had brought 
them out, through a mighty hand, and by an out¬ 
stretched Jirm.* —Our forefathers were delivered 
in like manner, by the kind providence of God, 
from a much worse bondage, even from the 
chains of Satan and Death. —The Lord's Day , 
which succeeded to the Sabbath of (he Israelites , 
is a standiug memorial of this our redemption, as 
well as creation ; and our servants have an equal 
§ Luke.i .79. * Deut. v. 14,15. 



12 


title to the benefits of it, as thnse of the Jews 
had to the ancient Sabbath.—How much more 
then ought we to labour, that cur siives may par¬ 
take of the blessings of the Gospel ; and thereby 
he enabled to enter into that everlasting rest of 
the people of God, f which they have as much 
right to as we have ? 

When Got) was pleased to confirm his cove¬ 
nant with Abraham by the seal of circumcision, 
he enjoined it in the following words :— He that 
is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, 
every man child in your generations', he that is 
born in the house , or bought with money of any 
stranger that is not of thy seed.—He that is born 
m thy house, and he tnat is bought wi ll thy money , 
must needs be circumcised ; and my covenant shall 
be in your flesh, for an everlasting covenant .— 
Atrdlhe danger of neglecting it is set forth in the 
following verse :— Tke uncircumcised man-child, 
whose Jlesh—is not circumcised, that soul shall 
be cut off from his people ; he hath broken my co¬ 
venant.*—From this we may plainly discover the 
near relation between masters and sla\es ? these 
having the same right to the benefit of God’s 
covenant with our natural-born children; and 
the obligation of bringing them to it being of 
equal force with that we are under to our own 
immediate issue.— The command was given to 
Abraham, and in him to all masters, whose duty 
it was to see it faithfully performed :—And the 
' penalty of neglecting it (viz. being cutoff front 
his people, or forfeiting all thf advantages the 
people of Gt>i> were in titled to) certainly fell up¬ 
on the owner or master, whenever it happened 
through his fault ; as was the ease of Moses , 
when Gm, would have killed him for omitting to 
f I£eb iv, 11, * Gen. xvil- 12, V>A# 



13 


circumcise his child,f—Did a Jewish master, 
then, run so much hazard in neglecting to cir¬ 
cumcise his slave, and shall we incur no danger 
in neglecting to make Christians of ours ?-—Or can 
we imagine, that any work of mercy which was 
required by the first covenant, is void and oatfcel- 
led by the second , whose foundation is laid in un¬ 
speakable mercy, and its fabrick perfected by 
universal charity and love towards all mankind ? 
No, my brethren ; this is undoubtedly one brauch 
of that eternal law which our blessed Saviour 
came not to destroy but to fulfil ^ And if we 
would but seriously consider, that our want of 
care in this respect might cut us off from all or 
any of the blessings or privileges which the chil¬ 
dren of god have a right to, we would surely be 
more exact and zealous in promoting the salva¬ 
tion of those bought with our own money, or born 
in our houses ;—and think it as much our duty 
to bring them up in the knowledge and fear of 
God, as if they were our own flesh and blood. 

Our slaves are ingrafted into our families, lika 
branches or scions into a stock. And can we 
think that Christ, at his coming to visit ns, will 
not expect to find some fruit upon fhem4?—But 
how shall the branches bear fruit, unless the 
stock yield them due nourishment? Or how shall 
the fruit be good , if the branches have received 
none but corrupt juices ? If we, therefore, do 
not supply them with SMch means of grace as are 
in our power, must we not expect that they shall 
wither and perish? Or if they imbibe node but 
bad principles from us, can the produce be other 
than naughtiness and corruption? Whereas, had 
they been ingrafted into a sounder or more kindly 
stock, they might have flourished and brought 
fExod. iv- 24, kc: }| Matt, v 17 * Luke xiii. 7 



14 


forth a fair increase in due season. Let this 
then, remiud us of the dreadful sentence pronounc¬ 
ed by John the Baptist, and confirmed by our Sa¬ 
viour, that every tree which bringclh not forth 
good fruit, shall be hewn down, and cast•into the 
fire. || 

If we are commanded to extend our good offi¬ 
ces even to the 'beasts that perish, and not to 
meet the Ox or Jiss even of an enemy going astray 
without bringing it back or to see the Jss of 
him that hateth us lying under its burden, without 
lending a helping hand rf—How much more are 
we bound io do offices of mercy and kindness to 
men and women like ourselves, and especially 
those who stand in the next relation to us with 
our own children } and cot to see our poor bro¬ 
ther^ soul going astray, or labouring under the 
burden of his sins, without striving in any case 
to help it from under its heavy load, and endea¬ 
vor to bring it into the right way Pj 

God hath given us an extraordinary authority 
over our slaves.;—a power, which (except in life 
or limb) hath very few limitations. Can we sup¬ 
pose lie hath entrusted us with this extensive au¬ 
thority for no other end than our own temporal 
gains P—or shall we not rather acknowledge, that 
it ought also to be used for the promoting of his 
service, and the prudent enforcing of his com¬ 
mands P We daily pray, or ought daily to pray, 
that his kingdom may come and his will be done 
in Earth , as it is in Heaven. And when that 
prayer is so far answered to us, by the opportu¬ 
nities he affords us, of exalting that kingdom on 
earth, ought w© not then to labor with our utmost 
diligence, that the subjects of Satan may be 
|| Matt. iii. 10 , and Yii. 19 t Exod. xxiii. 4 , 5 ‘, 
tx>cut. xxii.l. 



15 


brought over to the dominion of Christ, and live 
according to his laws, by a due application of 
such power, and other means, as his good Provi¬ 
dence hath thought fit to put into our hands ?>— 
If we neglect these opportunities, and make no 
use of these means 5 or if we exert this authority 
only for our own service and take no care of his, 
do not our tongues give our practice the lie, as 
often as we say the Lord’s prayer ? And must 
we not either deceive ourselves, when we repeat 
that particular petition, without knowing or con¬ 
sidering what we pray for, or play the hypocrite 
with our God, when we understand the meaning 
of it, and yet use no endeavours to make it effec¬ 
tual i 

It is Saint Paul's precept, that whatsoever we 
do, we should do all to the glory of Goo,$ And 
how can we glorify our heavenly Father, more 
than by bringing up his poorer children, whom he 
hath committed to our care, in his knowledge and 
fear ? Or how can we dishonour him more in 
this world, than by suffering them to remain in 
utter ignorance, and the practice of such abomi¬ 
nations as are highly offensive to him, when it is 
so much in our power to do otherwise ? 

Christines are called a Royal Priesthood ;* and 
Christ is said to have made us Kings and Priests 
unto Goo ;f to set before us both the reward and 
employment. If, therefore, we would reign with 
him as Kings iu Heaven, we must serve him as 
Priests here upon earth; not only by offering him 
the spiritual sacrifices of praise and thanksgiv¬ 
ing, but by doing the office of spiritual instruct¬ 
ors and teachers in our own houses, and prepare 
ing the way of the Lord in the hearts and affec¬ 
tions of our children and servants* 

* 1 Cor, x; 31. • 1 Pet. ii. 9. t B*v, i- 



16 


Servants are directed by Saint Paul to adorn 
the doctrine of GOD their Saviour in all things 
—Are masters, then, under no such obligation ? 
—Hath God given them so much greater authori¬ 
ty, such vast advantage of power and means 
above their servants, without requiring a propor¬ 
tionable care in the use of this power, and the9* 
means ?—Ff each servant by himself is command¬ 
ed in all his behaviour to demean himself so as to 
be an ornament to the religion he professeth, is 
it not plain, that masters and mistresses are 
equally bound to see that their faniilies.be so re¬ 
gulated, at least, as to bripg no reproach upon 
that holy doctrine they have received from GOD 
their Saviour ?—But how this can be done with¬ 
out proper instruction, or how Christian practice 
can be, where Christian principles are wanting, I 
mast own I cannot comprehend —It is certain, 
that wicked people of any sort, reflect a great 
dishonor, both upon the family and profession 
they belong to And people are very apt to 
judge of the principles of the master, by the ge¬ 
neral behaviour df the servants ; though after 
all they may be much mistaken in both eases.— 
But it must be allowed, that a general misbeha¬ 
viour among the servants belonging to any fami¬ 
ly, is a shrewd sign of a want of good'discipline in 
their superiors.—If therefore we have any due 
regard, either for our own credit, or the honor of 
that holy doctrine we profess, we will surely not 
only endeavor in our own persons, but also in the 
instruction and regulation of our servants, to be 
an ornament to our profession, and a blessing to 
those whom Providence hath placed under us. 

It is really a melancholy reflection, that in a 
country like this, where such numbers of people 3 
$ Tit. ii. 10.- 



17 


professing the purest doctrines of Christianity, 
Lave been so long settled, the Christian religion 
hath been no farther propagated among its an¬ 
cient heathen inhabitants, many of which dwell 
in the midst of us, yet remain ag much Heathens 
as if Use sun of righteousness had not as yet risen 
upon it, and the light of the Gospel had never 
reached these distant shores.—So that siw.e my 
arrival here, I have not so much as heard of a 
single Indian in this whole province, who is con¬ 
verted to, and lives in the profession of the Chris¬ 
tian faith.—Is it not a sad end grievous reproach, 
that we have made them no better return lor the 
plenteous land they have given up to us, and the 
valuable settlement we have obtained from them, 
than teaching them our vices, and introducing 
luxury, drunkenness and debauchery among them, 
without any one public attempt, any resolved 
steady measures taken, *or shewing them bow to 
be happy indeed, and pointing out to them the 
wav to a far better country than that we have re-s 
eeived from them ?—But is it sot yet a sadder 
and more grievous reproach to us* that «o many 
pool? creatures, whose liberties and very lives are 
incur hands, whose whole labour is bestowed up¬ 
on us ; who live within our own dwellings, and 
daily feed at our tables, should be taught littio 
more of our religion, than if they had remained 
in the Heathen,barbarous, countries from whence 
they were brought for our service and benefit. 

If a master or mistress, in a plentiful country, 
abounding with all the necessaries of life, should 
keep slaves in a starving condition, without al¬ 
lowing them meat for their bellies, or <4oath:ng 
for their barks, or shelter to lie under \ but put 
them under a necessity of picking up a living as 
well as they could, without any assistance to- 



18 


wards it, or abating any part of their time and 
labor for that purpose :—would not all mankind 
ery out shame at such inhuman, aud cruel treat¬ 
ment ?—And shall not we be ashamed, in a Chris¬ 
tian country, where the Gospel is so plemeously 
shed abroad, to keep our slaves in ignorance and 
blindness, denying them spiritual food and nou¬ 
rishment to their souls ?—Or, what amounts to 
much the same, leaving them to pick it up among 
their fellow servants, who are as blind and igno¬ 
rant as themselves, and as ready to fall into a 
ditch i —or else to get it, if they can, at church, 
supposing they should have the grace and incli¬ 
nation to go there of their own accord ; and 
where, for want of some instruction in the first 
principles of Christianity, nine parts in ten of 
what they hear must needs be unintelligible to 
them ?—If it were left to our own choice whether 
we would perish with hunger, or be damned to 
all Eternity , and that we were laid under an ab¬ 
solute necessity of doing the one or the other,— 
wonld we not think it a dreadful case ?—For to 
die of famine is most wretched !—And damnation ! 
it is not to be thought of without the utmost shock 
and horror !—Yet surely, the odds are infinitely 
great :—and the least due reflection must needs 
determine us to the laying down of the body in 
pain and misery for a short season, rather than 
to give up body and soul to certain torment and 
destruction for ever and ever!—Apply this, now, 
to the case of our slaves :—and say, whether it 
would be more cruel and inhuman in us, to let 
them perish here for want of such necessaries of 
life aB we have plenty of in our bands ; or to suf¬ 
fer their souls to starve amidst an harvest of God's 
word, and for want of that nurture and admoni¬ 
tion of the Lord, which is easier come by, and 



19 

coRtB less in furnishing, than the meanest piece cf 
•lothingthey put on ? 

If our servants neglect or refuse to give us that 
which is just and equal, the law hath given us 
power to correct anti force them to do it. But if 
we refuse them that which is just and equal, 
where is their remedy ? In cases which concern 
their souls, and upon which their eternal welfare 
depends, there is no earthly court in which they 
can have redress This is a matter in which 
conscience is purely concerned, and where ne hu¬ 
man jurisdiction takes place, Masters have all 
the authority, servants none. To whom much 
is given, of him shall much be required : —And by 
how much less human remedies are wanting, by 
so much the more does divine justice interpose, 
_To whom then are owners of slaves answera¬ 
ble?—before whom shall they account for their 
behaviour as such, but the Lord of heaven and 
earth, who is j no respecter of -persons, and who 
judgeth f the cause of the poor and needy, and 
him that hath no helper ? If, therefore, we deny 
to these poor creatures any of their dues* and es, 
peeially such as relate to their future happiness, 
shall they not have recourse to theeourt of'GoD ? s 
equity in heaven, where their complaints will be 
impartially heard ;—where masters and servants 
shall one day appear face to face ;—and w here 
strict justice will be done them, without the least 
favour or affection ?— If J, saith LoJy Job , did 
despise the cause of my man-servant, or of my 
maid-servant, when they contended with me :— 
What shall 1 do when God rises up ? And when 
he visiteth, what shall I answer h im ? Bid 
not he that made me in the womb, make him ? and 
did not one fashion us in the Womb ?|| And 

*Jer. xxii. 16. f TssJ.lxatii, 12 f| Job xxxj, 13,14,15. 



20 


Masters are directed, in the test, to give that 
which is just and equal to their servants , from thin 
awful consideration that they also have a Master 
in heaven. 

Oar slaves are as so many talents $ put rate our 
lauds. They are God’s own property, and in¬ 
trusted te us by our heavenly master, that we 
may make use of and improve them. When, 
therefore, after a long time our Lord cometk to 
reckon with us, and enquire what use vre have 
put them to, and we 3ha.II say, Lord, we have 
made them able servants, and have taught them 
to work in the field, and iu the house, and to earn 
their bread honestly by the labour of their hands, 
and the sweat of their brows : Ho we think that 
this will be satisfactory ? Can we suppose that 
no more will be required of us ? Alas ! my bre¬ 
thren, is not this literally saying that we have 
buried our talents in the earth -that we have 
sunk them in our grounds, and used them only as 
dung and manure to our lands and plantations?— 
Auf I need not, surely repeat, what a dreadful 
sentence is pronounced against such tricked, 
slothful , unprofitable, servants , as lay out all upen 
this world, and take no care to return our heaven¬ 
ly master his own with usury. If we are profit¬ 
able, it is only to ourselves and to our worldly 
affairs; hut, in respect of him, areas absolutely 
unprofitable as if those precious talents had been 
hid in the earth, and no use at all made of them. 

Charity is so essential to the very being of true 
religion, that Christianity cannot subsist without 
it : For which reason; Saint Peter recommends 
it to us above all things. Move all things , saith 
lie, have fervent charity’ among yourselves: for 
charity covereth a multitude of sins. *is every 
tMattacv. 



21 


man hath received the good gift , even so minister 
the same one to another , as good stewards of the 
manifold grace of God.*— And hence it is that in 
the 25th Chap, of saint Matthew, (where our sa¬ 
viour describes that awful day, when he shall 
come in his glory, and all his holy angels with 
him, and all nations shall be gathered before him , 
sitting on the throne of judgment,) the kingdom 
of heaven is said to be given to such as shall 
have performed works of mersv and charity; 
such as feeding the hungry , giving drink to 
the thirsty, receiving the stranger, clothing the 
naked, and visiting and comforting the sick, and 
the prisoner :—And the dreadful sentence, which 
dooms the wicked to that everlasting fire which 
was prepared for the devil and his angels, is pro¬ 
nounced upon them for their want of charity, and 
negleet of performing these works of mercy and 
Piety.—If, then, these Acts of kindness, done to 
the bodies of strangers and poorer neighbours, 
have such a glorious reward, and the neglect of 
them, when we have opportunity, drags so heavy 
a punishment after it, how great must be liie- re¬ 
ward of saving poor souls, and how horrible the 
sentence ef those that cause, or suffer them to 
perish !—-The poor and the needy are Christ’s 
etvn representatives jthey have a demand upon us 
iu his name, for all such deeds of lovfe and be¬ 
nevolence as we have power and opportunity to 
pay them : And if we slight the demand, we be¬ 
come debtors to God’s eternal justice for the ne¬ 
glect of payment.—If we, then, by being Christian 
masters, are no more than stewards of the mani¬ 
fold Grace of GOD, and are required to minister 
the same to others as freely as we have received 

*1 Peter iv. 8,10. 



22 


the good gift, how shall we look our master in the 
face when he summons os by death to give an 
account of our stewardship ?* —And what a terri¬ 
ble sight must it be, to see a number of these 
unhappy creatures drawn up against us in judg¬ 
ment, witnessing that the loss of their poor souls 
was owing to our want of care and charity for 
them, calling aloud for the justice of Heaven ; 
and to hear the judge pronouncing the conclusion 
of that awful and tremendous sentence, Verily I 
say unto you, inasmuch as ye did it not to one of 
the least of these my Brethren , ye did it not to me. 
Depart,—Depart from me, ye cursed ! 

Let these powerful considerations, my dear 
Christian brethren, sink deep into our minds :— 
Let them awaken us to a due sense of what we 
owe our heavenly master, in return for the bless¬ 
ings and talents he hath put into our Hands :— 
Let them prevail over our prejudices and mis¬ 
takes, and convince us, that it is not only a.great, 
but an indispensible duty of all masters and mis¬ 
tresses, to bring up their slaves in the knowledge 
and fear of Almighty GOD : —Let us not only 
hearken to them with our outward ears, but earn¬ 
estly pray that they may be so grafted inwardly 
in our hearts, as to bring forth, by his grace, the 
good fruits of Christianity, not only in our own, 
but in the Lives of our poor benighted Slaves $— 
So that we and they may adorn the Doctrine of 
God our Saviour in all things while we remain 
here, and hereafter be receiv’d as part of his 
houshoid, into those mansions of endless joy and 
felicity, which he hath prepared lor all those 
who, under any denomination, or in any station 
of life whatsoever, (whether master or servant, 
rich or poor, prinee ur slave) shall have behaved 
f Luke XVi; 2. 



on earth* as becomes the true and faithful ser- 
vantg of our great and universal master in Hea¬ 
ven. 

Which mey Gnu of his infinite mercy accom¬ 
plish in us and them, by ihe Grace and assistance 
of his holy spirit, for ihe sake of that well be¬ 
loved son, who went about doing goad to the 
souls and bodies of men, our Lord uad_ Saviour 
Jesus Christ. Amen, 


SERMON IL 

'CoLOSSIAJJS IV. £. 

Masters give unto your Servants that which is 
just and equal , knowing that ye also have a 
Master in Heaven. 

IN the former discourse upon these words, it 
was observed, how the great creator of heaven 
aud earth, who is the common parent and protec¬ 
tor of mankind, and consults the good ofaii his 
children in the course of his providential deal¬ 
ings towards them. Lath been pleased to make 
all men, in some sort, dependent one upon ano¬ 
ther, and by ahautual exchange of service aad 
assistance, to coutribute to the comfort and sop. 
port of each in particular, as weH as the general 
benefit of the wholeAnd that upon this neces¬ 
sary intercourse of good offices are founded all 
the law# of society, the rules of equity, aud those 



24 


particular duties which are called relative , and 
tvhich make up the bulk #f the moral obligations 
between mao and man:—every act of kindness 
or service, from one person to another, requiring 
its correspondent Teturn.—And that heuce ser¬ 
vants, have an undoubted right by the law of na¬ 
ture and reason, as well as by the revealed will 
of God, to have what is just and equal from their 
masters, in recompense of their labour. 

Intending only to insist upon that principal 
branch of duty to our slaves w hich consist in 
bringing them up in the knowledge and fear of 
almighty God, it was proposed to our considera¬ 
tion under the following heads : 

I. The Nature of this great and indispensable 
Obligation. 

II. The advantages attending a due compli¬ 
ance therewith. 

III. The common objections and excuses which 
are made eoncerniug it. 

IV. In what manner this duty may best be per¬ 
formed, to the due discharge of our conscien¬ 
ces* and with the greatest probability of suc¬ 
cess. 

The first of these heads hath been already exa¬ 
mined, and the natnre and force of this obligation 
shewn, by various considerations drawn from — 
the nature of that service we receive from our 
Slaves, and the return we owe of ail necessaries 
suitable to the condition of men and women, the 
whole produce of whose lives and labours are be¬ 
stowed upon usthe care and love of God to¬ 
wards all his creatures, and the apparent kind 
designs of his Providence, in sending them into 
a country where they may exchange the darkness 



25 


of paganism for the light of the gospel, and their 
temporal liberties here, for an eternal freedom 
in'heaven hereafter;—the positive command of 
God to the Jews, concerning the circumcision of 
their slaves, whether purchased when grown up, 
or born in tlieir houses, with the penalty threat¬ 
ened in case of neglect;—the great duties of mer¬ 
cy and charity, and eudeavonrs to promote the 
kingdom of God upon earth, to. which all Chris¬ 
tians are absolutely bound, as they have oppor¬ 
tunity of putting them in practice ; and especial¬ 
ly heads of families, in the present case, from 
the near relation they bear to their slaves, as 
common parents:—the vast authority and influ¬ 
ence which God hath given us over them, and 
which we ought to make use of for the promoting 
of his glory, and the good of their souls :—and 
the strict account we must one day give to our 
great master in heaven of the use we have made 
of all these talents and advantages, with which 
he hath been pleased to intrust us for our own 
benefit, and setting forward the salvation of his 
poor uniustructed children, and conveying those 
mercies to them, which he, in Ins goodness and 
mercy, hath been pleased to convey down to us, 
from our converted fathers, mar») ages ago. 

We now come to examine, 

II. The advantages arising from a due compli¬ 
ance with this great and indispensable obli¬ 
gation. 

And as the consideration of the former head 
shewed this to be a duty owing to God and to our 
brethren, (as these poor creatures, notwithstand¬ 
ing the meanness and slavery of their condition, 
really are,) so the examination of this must needs 
convince us, that it is a duty we likewise owe to 



26 

ourselves, with respect to our earthly as well as 
eternal welfare. 

We are all apt to complain of bad servants -— 
and truly, so far as there is justice and reason in 
this complaint, I am of opinion the fault is, in a 
great measure, our own :—we do not take the 
proper methods of making them good.—For 
what, in the name of God, can we expect from 
poor ignorant creatures, who have little or no 
care taken of their principles;—little or no no¬ 
tion of an all-seeing God, or a future judgment; 
—nothing but sense and appetite to guide them ; 
—nothing but the present object to allure or ter¬ 
rify them ?—If we are, at any time, under a ne¬ 
cessity ofleaving our affairs to the management 
of others, we do not think it prudent to commit 
them to aaiy but such as we have a good opinion 
of as honest, conscientious men, who would ren¬ 
der us a faithful account of them to the best of 

their abilities_Our slaves are daily and hourly 

intrusted with our stfbstanee, and the success of 
our crops and dealings do often depend upon their 
diligence and fidelity :—And how can we assure 
ourselves of these qualifications in them, other¬ 
wise than by taking care to instil good princi¬ 
ples into their minds, by setting before them 
much greater rewards than our poor services, or 
even the whole world ean afford ; and awakening 
their consciences by the dread of much greater 
punishments, and pains far more intolerable 
than they could suffer by perishing of hunger, or 
cold, dying upon a rack, being cut to pieces, or 
whipped to death for their faults.—The strong¬ 
est tie upon ihe human mind is. plaiuly that uf 
conscience.—All other restraints, of what sort so¬ 
ever, like cords and withs upon the arms of a 
Sampso.n } are easily broke through $ and w hen the 



27 


passions grow strong, dissolve before (hem as flax 

burnt with fire. --Where conscience is wanting, 

ways and means of eluding or escaping the penal' 
lies of human laws are seldom w anting : —or, at 
least, the bold sinner, when the vice is inviting, 
will readily run the venture, as every days’s ex¬ 
perience may teach us.—If lie escapes, he reck¬ 
ons it as so much gain:—and if discovered, will 
either make light of the punishment, or receive 
it as a caution to lay his schemes better the next 
pieee of wickedness he attempts.—How many 
unfortunate people do we hear of, whose crimes 
have brought them to untimely ends ; who being 
hardened in infidelity, and having their conscien¬ 
ces seared though a long course of wickedness 
and irreligion, have been quite regardless of the 
greatest of all human punishments ; have faced a 
gibbet with intrepidity, and looked, upon a most 
shameful death, as nothing more than the laying 
down of a wretched being, and stepping out of an 
ill-natured world, that for the preservation of 
society would not let them live in it as they 
thought proper ?—Aud can we, my brethren, 
hope for any better from our slaves, while they 
remain strangers to conscience and religion, and 
ignorant of the rewards aud punishments of the 
life to come ?—Consider their state of labour 
and servitude :—that the drudgery is theirs, aud 
the profit entirely ours that their senses are 
as perfect, and their passions and appetites e- 
qually strong with ours :—and consequently their 
tetnpations to ease or idleness, to drinking or 
riot, to filching for the supply of iheir pleasures 
ami extravagauce, or to any .present gratifica¬ 
tion, increase iu force as the means of satisfying 
them are farther removed from their reach, and 
seldomer fall in their wav.—And then, putting 



religion out of the question, say what better se¬ 
curity you have for their good behaviour than the 
dread of the lash, or a continual uneasy watch 
kept over them ?—Both these they may find a 
way to disappoint:—they may grow hardened 
under correction, or at length disregard life it¬ 
self, which affords them so little of their own 

ways and desires_Whereas, to convince them 

of the certainty of a future state, and that the 
eyes ot Almighty God are continually upon them, 
who will reward them for their honest service, 
though do man was to take notice of it, and 
punish them fot their idleness and dishonesty, 
though their owner or overseers were never to 
come to the knowledge of it, must necessarily tend 
to make them as careful of our business aud sub¬ 
stance behind our backs as before our faces, and 
as tuueh afraid of doing an ill thing under 
eovert of the greatest darkness and secrecy, as 
they would in the open day, before a thousand 
witnesses.—If then it be so plain, that a religious 
conscience is the best security for any persons’s 
fidelity and honesty, we cannot but own that to 
bring up our slaves in the knowledge and fear of 
God, must needs be of great advantage to our 
temporal affairs :—and that a little care and 
watchfulness bestowed in this way, may 6ave us 
a vast deal of time and trouble in another.—For, 
to sum up this point in the words of a pious au¬ 
thor.—“ He that hath conscience needs no spies ; 
“ and he that hath none will outwit a hundred.” 

Our blessed saviour, speaking of all things ne- 
eessary for the support and comfort of life, hath 
assured us that if we first seek the kingdom of 
God and his righteousness , all these things shall 
be added unto us: —which words, unless they con¬ 
tain an absolute promise of temporal blessings, 



29 


to such as make the kingdom of God and his 
righteousness their first and principal cure, I must 
own have, to me, no meaning at all-—But what 
right can any person claim to these advantages 
who neglects performing the conditions ?—Or 
how can any' one be said to have a real concern 
for promoting the kingdom of God, and his righte¬ 
ousness, or to make that his first and principal 
care, who lays out his whole pains in making hi* 
slaves profitable to his worldly interest, without 
bestowing some time and labour upon making 
them servants of God ?—Or, is the Lord’s hand 
waxed skort that we question whether his words 
shall come to pass unto us or not?* They surely 
must ha ve little faith in God who can possibly 
doubt in such a case ; and yet, to our shame t 
speak it, our sad negligence in this respect, and 
eager struggles for promoting our earthly advan¬ 
tages, make us look more like unbelievers than 
Christians ;—more like people who depend abso¬ 
lutely on themselves, than such as own a divine 
Over-ruling Providence, or put any trust & con¬ 
fidence in that God, whose lav/s and promises we 
acknowledge are contained in the holy scriptures, 
wherein the above remarkable words are recorded 
for our encouragement in this duty. 

But besides this* and many other passages to 
the like purpose, God has thought fit to leave us 
examples, in those sacred writings, of masters 
who have received extraordinary blessings upon 
account of the piety and virtue of their servants ; 

_of which Jacob aud his son Joseph are instances 

worthy the strictest notice.— Laban whom Jacob 
served, was an idolater, (as appears from his 
pursuit after him to demand his gads or images, 
which Rachel had stolen unknown to Jacob)— 
* Numb. xi. 23. 

o 2 



30 


yet we find from his own confession, that he was 
thoroughly sensible of the reason of God’s extra¬ 
ordinary favours to him, and how great a loss it 
would be to part with such a servant, which put 
him upon so many contrivances to retain hint in 
his house.—For when Jacob desired leave to re¬ 
tire with his own family, Ltiban said unto him , I 
pray thee , if I have found favour in thine eyes, 
tarry : For I have learned by experience, that the 
Lord hath blessed me for thy sake.Joseph also 
served an heathen master, Potiphar ; who soon per¬ 
ceived the great value of his pious young slave:— 
“For this master saw that the Lord vvas with him; 
and that the Lord made all that he did to prosper 
in his hand. And it eame to pass, that from the 
time that he had made him overseer in his house, 
and over all that he had, that the Lord blessed the 
Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; and the bless¬ 
ing of the Lord was upon all that he had in the 
house, and in thefield.”+-And when, by the wick¬ 
ed aecusalion of his abandoned mistress, he was 
thrown into prison, the blesssing of God followed 
him also iuto that dismal place ; and the Gaoler 
now becoming his master, enjoyed the advantage 
of his fidelity, and that favour of heaven which 
went along with him :—For the keeper of the pri‘ 
son looked not to any thing that was under his hand 
because the Lord was with Joseph ; and that 
which he did , the Lord made it to prosper .|| 

We cannot but know, that the utmost human 
industry and care, can do no more that put our 
affairs under a prudent regulation :—And when 
we have done all in our power, the success must 
he left to a divine, over-ruling Providence.— 
Except the LORD build the house (or establish a 

* Gen. xix 27, t Chap. 3 » 5 

|| Ver. 23 



31 


family in wealth, power, or reputation)t/iey labour 
in vain that build it.* (That is, their struggles & 
contrivances are all ineffectual; ami attempts for 
raising themselves and their families in the world, 
are all fruitless and insignificant,) It is vain 
therefore, for us to rise up early, to sit up late and 
to eat the bread of toil and sorrow , whilst God 
is against us.f— 44 He disappointeth the devices of 
the most crafty, so that they eannotperform their 
enterprize.”4 Both riches and honour come of 
him.—He putteth down one, and setteth up ano¬ 
ther. '’ll— And though the lot be cast in the lap , yet 
the whole disposing thereof is of the LOEl )^— 
Since, then, God hath not only the disposal of 
all earthly good things, but hath also positively 
promised a competent share of them to such as 
strive to promote his kingdom and his righteous¬ 
ness ; and since his blessing doth so visibly follow 
the labours of servants who love and fear him, 
shall not these advantages prevail with us to 
bring up our slaves in his faith and fear ?—And 
may we not rationally expect a double blessing, 
in such a case, even in our worldly affairs ; not 
only because we take the very method he hath 
pointed out to us, but also upon account of such 
of these poor creatures, as by our means are 
fitted to convey his mercies to us aud our fami¬ 
lies, by their worshipping and serving of him ? 

If another Joseph were now to be sold, and his 
value known beforehand, there is no doubt but he 
would bear a very high price ;—and that no per¬ 
son, capable of purchasing such a one, would be 
sparing of his money, when he knew that he was 
at the same time buying a blessing from Heaven 
upon whatsoever that slave should take in hand. 

* Psal. cxxvii. 1, 2. f Job- v. 12 i 1 Chron 
xxix. 11. || Psal lxxv 7 U Proy xvi S3 



32 


—We cannot indeed hope to purchase a Joseph 
among poor ignorant Heathens But, as every 
good Christian hath the same title to the favour 
of Almighty God, have we not the strongest 
reason to hope, that we shall find a Joseph in 
every slave who is reclaimed, by the Grace of 
God assisting our pious endeavours ?—And shall 
we then be so sparing of a little time and pains 
in securing that particular blessing, upon the 
iabours of those s/aueswho are already in our 
possession, which we were taught to expect from 
making them servants of the most high God 
Or if. from our neglect, they want those princi. 
pies of conscience and fidelity without which it 
is impassible to have a good servant, and a curse 
should follow whatever they have a hand in, 
upon account of their wickedness or Idolatry, 
may we not justly blame ourselves, who have it 
so much in our power to make them beneficial to 
us, and acceptable to Almighty God ? 

The children of Israel had the highest venera¬ 
tion far the ark of the covenant, because God 
was pleased to mauifest his divine presence in a 
more particular manner from the mercy-seat 
which crowned it:—-So that when it was taken by 
the Philistines, they considered themselves as lost 
and undone, the glory and protection of God be¬ 
ing departed from Israel*.— When it was after¬ 
wards brought home, and at its second removal 
was lodged some time at the house of Obed-Edom , 
the LORD blessed Obed- 'Edom , and all his house¬ 
hold, aud all that pertained to him, because of the 
ark of GOD.i -If, then, sucb blessings do fol¬ 

low the presence of the Almighty, and since our 
Saviour hath promised, that where two or three 
are gathered together in his name , there will 
* 1 Sam. iL 22. t 2 Sam. vi. 11,12- 



33 


he be in the midst of them §:—.May not every 
Christian family, wherein the worship of God is 
established, and the servants brought up in his 
faith and fear, be looked upon as having the Ark 
of God within their walls?—And may they not 
expect an equal blessing with Obed-Edom, from 
the happy influence of that divine presence, 
which is so positively promised by him that is 
faithful,* and in whom all the promises of GOD 
are Yea and Amen, t and which nothing but their 
own neglect and contempt can ever deprive them 
of ?—And doth not every person, who suffers his 
slaves to remain in ignoranee and idolatry, so 
far deprive himself and his family of the com¬ 
fort of that divine presence, which is accompani¬ 
ed with so many blessings:-and provoke that 

God to hide bis face from him, who is of purer 
eyes than to behold evil^ and cannot look upon 
iniquity 

He then that covets good servants^—He that 
is desirous of God’s blessing upon his own-and 
their labours, and upon all that he hath in the 
house, and in the field ;—He that would assure 
himself of the favor of heaven, aDd a comforta¬ 
ble enjoyment of earthly good things, let him 
strive to bring up his slaves and family in the 
knowledge and fear of God: —And let him de¬ 
pend upon it, that he, who is truth itself and can¬ 
not lie, will be faithful and just in performing his 
promises $ will bestow upon him whatever ad¬ 
vantages are suitable to his condition, and deny 
him nothing which is necessary for his comfort 
here, and is at the same time condueible to his 
eternal welfare hereafter. 

But now, a fresh 6cene of blessings opens itself 
to our view, and leads us to consider the advan- 
§ Mat. xviii. 20 * Heb. x. 23 f 2 Cor. i. 20 * Hab. i. 13 



34 


tages which arise from the instruction of our 
Haves in the knowledge and fear cf GOD , with 
respect to a future state :—Wherein we shall find 
the motives grow stronger, and receive an addi¬ 
tional force, in proportion as the good things of 
another life are more valuable and lasting than 
the good things of this life. 

It is no small advantage , nrising lrom the in¬ 
struction of others, that we ourselves grow more 
knowing in the things we strive to show them.— 
Those who have taken the pains of catechising 
their children, (1 do not mean such as barely 
teach them the questions and answers by rote, but 
such as also labour to make them apprehend the 
meaning and understanding of the principles of 
the Christian religion), must needs have found by 
experience, how much themselves have increased 
in the knowledge of God, by endeavoring to im¬ 
part it to their little ones. And, for myself I 
cannot but own, with unfeigned thanks to Al¬ 
mighty God, who has called ine to be your Pas¬ 
tor, that the necessity I am under of providing 
instruction for my beloved Rock, hath been the 
source of much comfortable spiritual knowledge 

‘to me :-And that the consideration of every 

single subject, which I endeavour to explain in 
this place, discovers more and more to me of my 
own ignorance in tilings, which l thought myself 
sufficiently master of, till that attempt hath 
shewn my mistake, and .convinced me of my great 
deficiency.—If we would but duly consider the 
inestimable value of this knowledge, nud the 
great danger of neglecting it :—that Solomon 
pronouneeth the man to be happy who findeth 

wisdom, and gettelh understanding ; -and the 

merchandize of it to be better than the merchan¬ 
dize of silver , and the gain thereof than fine 



35 


Gold:* —And our blessed Saviour hath declared 
this to be life eternal, that we may know the only 
true GOD, and Jesus Christ whom he hath 
sent: t—If we would but call to mind, that the 
Jews (who were the chpsen of God) were sent 
into captivity, because they had no lcnoicledge ;§ 
—and because they were a people of no under¬ 
standing :—therefore he that made them w'ould 
have no mercy on them .-||—If we would but re¬ 
flect that these punishments, and this loss of 
God’s favour and mercy, was not owing to their 
■want of.seuse, or of human learning and cunning, 
hut to their neglect of applying themselves to 
the study of the laws of God ; as appears from 
his description of them, by the mouth of the 
Prophet Jeremiah :—My people is foolish, they 
have not known me ; they are sottish children 
and they have no understanding ; they are wise 
to do evil, but to do good they ham no know¬ 
ledge —Aud that they were destroyed for lack 
of this heavenly know ledge ; which they having 
rejected t GOD did also reject themift Whereas, 
on the other hand, Daniel assures us, that the 
people who know their GOD, shall be strong, and 
do exploits : and they that understand among the 
people shall instruct many —If we 1 say, would 
thus consider, and moreover, that St. Paul, 
though he bare record of the Jews in his days, 
that they had a commendable zeal uf GOD, yet 
blames them that it was not according to know¬ 
ledge,^ we should, surely, with that blessed A- 
postle, “count all things but loss for the excellen¬ 
cy of the knowledge of Christ .lesus, that we might 
know him and the power of his resurrection.”** 

*Prov. iii. 13, 14 f.lolin xviJ. 3 §lsaf. v 13 

{jlbid six. yl IfJer.iv. 22 . jfrios. iv 6 

|$Dan. xi. 32, 33 4+Rom. x. 2 * » Philip hi 8, 10 



36 


And since the instruction of others is so effectual 
a means of obtaining it, we shall surely rejoice 
that God in his providential goodness, hath put 
such happy opportunities in our hands of propa¬ 
gating that knowledge in our slaves, and at the 
same time of improving it in ourselves, to their 

and our own unspeakable spiritual benefit.- 

This will induce us to be careful and diligent, in 
searching and studying the holy Scriptures, those 
pure fountains of divine wisdom;—“to lay up the 

w ord of God in our hearts, aud in our souls;- 

to bind them for a sign upon our hands, to be as 
frontlets between our eyes;—to teach them to our 
children and servants —to speak of them when 
w r e sit in the house, and when we walk in the way 
when we lie down, and when we rise up:t”—And, 
strive to make them as plain, as intelligible, and 
as full to the view of ourselves and our house¬ 
holds, as if they wer e written upon the door-posts 
of our houses , and upon our gates., —And as a 
farther spur to our diligence herein, we may add 
the dread of that heavy wo, threatened by our 
saviour to the Scribes and Pharisees, who shut up 
the kingdom of heaven against men , and neither 
went in themselves , nor would suffer them that were 
entering to go in.\ 

If a plague or other mortal distemper were 
raging in our neighbourhood, we would, surely, 
make use of the best means in our power to keep 

it from our doors.-Or if it had already 

seized any of the family, we would endeavour 
by wholesome remedies to cure the sick, and ad¬ 
minister proper antidotes to such as had not yet 
caught the infection, to prevent it spreading far¬ 
ther. And if by such prudent means we succeed¬ 
ed in recovering the distempered, or preserving 

f l)eut. xi 13, 19, 20 iMfttt. xxiii 13 Luke xi 52 



the sound, we should in either ease reckon if a 
great happiness, and sufficient recompence for 
the pains we had taken.—Sin is a most danger¬ 
ous and mortal disease of the soul, which having 
once got head is very difficult of cure, apt to 
spread fast, and often proves fatal to those who 
catch it.—We all know and complain that vice 
abounds every where ; and that no neighbourhood 
is free from wickedness of some sort or other.— 
And as a set of religious principles is the only 
effectual remedy, under God, either for preven¬ 
tion or cure, is not this sufficient to awaken uj to 

a timely care in the application of it ?-'But if 

any member of a family hath got this terrible 
disorder, it is surely high time for the master to 
look about him, and provide against the malig¬ 
nity, lest the whole body should be endangered by 
the mortification of the limb.—One wicked ser¬ 
vant entices another;—this carries the temptation 
still farther ;—And thus it proceeds from hand 
to hand, till it perhaps reaches the children of 
the house, and the master’s own-flesh and blood 
is often irrecoverably tainted.—It is, indeed hard 
to conceive, what mischief one wicked servant 
is capable of doing in a family, and how daring¬ 
ly he will proceed in spreading it, while he is un¬ 
der no restraint from religion or conscience, and 
no pains are taken to set him right.—This then 
may be reckoned among the great advantages of 
instructing our slaves in the knowledge and fear 
of God:— We care them of the disorder of sin ; 

-or if they are so far gone, as we fail in that, 

we at least prevent its spreading farther, pre¬ 
serve the rest from taint and corruption, and de¬ 
liver our own souls. 

We cannot but know, (if we are in the least ac« 
ouaiuted with our own hearts) that w e have many 

n 



38 


gins to answer for, which should God enter into 
strict judgment with us, must needs condemn us, 

beyond all hope of justification or acquittal.- 

If, then, any advantage in this respect be otiered 
us, ought we not chearfully and thankfully to 
embrace the occasion, and lay hold of every op¬ 
portunity given us, of lightening this burden, and 

staying the uplifted arm of divine justice ?- 

There are few of the common vices of mankind 
which do not affect more than one person, either 
by way of communication, example, or offence, 
-This is plain in the case of riot, drunken¬ 
ness, gaming, swearing, scoffing at religion and 
seriousness, lewdness in deed or word, and such 
like.—And, surely, the least acknowledgment 
we can make to God and the world, for the cor¬ 
ruptions or offences our persuasions or examples 
may have have caused, is, after we have seen the 
error of our ways, and repented of our misdeeds, 
to strive to convert and reclaim others, who re¬ 
main in sin and ignorance, and to bring them into 

the right way. - - . To this purpose our blessed 

saviour having fortold to Peter his repe atedde- 
nials of him, exhorted hinj, when he should be 
converted to strengthen his brethren .*-*—— And St. 
James expressly saith, Brethren , if any of you do 
err from the truth, and one convert him, let him 
know that he which converteth the sinner from 
the error of his way, shall save a soul from death , 

and shall hide a multitude of sins.f-Do we, 

then, my brethren, know ourselves to be sinners, 
and obnoxious to the just wrath of an Almighty, 
offended power?-Do we know, that he ex¬ 

pects we should strive to make some 6ort of a- 
raends for our own infirmities, by strenthetfing and 

confirming the minds of our weak brethren ?- 

* Luke xxii, 32. t Janies v. 19, 20. 



39 


Do we know, that he hath promised by his holy 
apostle to hide, or pass over a multitude of our 
sins, upon condition that we faithfully strive t# 

convert other sinners ?-Hath God given us 

the means of performing this condition, by putting 
into our hands a number of poor, ignorant, un¬ 
converted souls ?-And shall we be so far want¬ 

ing to ourselves and them, as to suffer them to 
perish, and thereby entail the punishment of a 
multitude of sins upon our own heads, wbiuh o- 
therwise, through the merciful promise of God in 
Christ, would have been remitted to us P 

But there is yet the greatest and most glorious 
advantage behind, which bringing up the rear, 
crowns and establishes all the rest : namely, the 
glories of an happy eternity .——And these are 
expressly promised, to such as labour for the con¬ 
version of souls- The fruit of the righteous is 

a tree of life , saith Solomon, and he that winnneth 

souls is u;ise4- They that be wise ,saith Daniel, 

shall shine as the brightness of the firmament: and 
they that turn many to righteousness, as the stars 
for ever and ever.f —This is a reward beyond the 
utmost stretch of human imagination;—a happi¬ 
ness as impossible to be described by the tongue 
of man, as it is for him to comprehend, even in 

thought,- For eye hath not seen, nor ear heard 

neither hath entered into the heart of man, the 
things which Gqd hath prepared for them that 
love him.\\ 

And are all these benefits, all these unspeakable 

glories laid before us my brethren ?-Are we 

pressed and inyited to accept them upon the easi¬ 
est terms, and shall we hesitate and turn our 
backs upon them ?-Shall we sit still and ex¬ 

pect that all these blessings should be bestowed 
* Prov. xi. 30. | Dan, xii. 3. || 1 Cor. ii. 9* 



40 


upon us, without some care on our part in seeking 

for them ?-That God should do all for our 

glory, and we nothing for the advancement of 

his P -Shall we vainly hope to rejoice for ever 

iu the presence of Almighty God, while we use 
mo endeavours for causingjny in heaven over one 
sinner that repenteth,* and is converted by our 

means ?-Can we set up any rational claim to 

be joint-heirs with Christ , and to be glorified toge¬ 
ther with him , if we refuse to be workers together 
with him f in promoting the salvation of men ? 
—•—Or what reasonable hope can we entertain of 
shining forth as the sun among the. righteous in 
the kingdom of their heavenly father, \ when we 
are so niggardly of the light of the gospel, which 
lie hath so liberally and freely bestowed upon us; 
and instead of letiing it shine in its full lustre be - 
■fore onr poor, ignorant, benighted slaves , rather 
hide it under a bushel, arid ungratefully suffer them 

to remain in darkness ?-No my brethren, as 

the reward, so is the labour of love set before us, 
and the one is not to be expected, without the 
performance of the other :—And if we will pre¬ 
tend any right to the wages of heaven, as servants 
and stewards of the most high God, who hath in¬ 
trusted us with his talents, we must, as it is just 
and equal, give a due proportion of Christian in- 
‘itruetinii to our ignorant slaves ; so that advanc¬ 
ing his kingdom, by the addition of so many »nb- 
jects to it here, we and they may be received iuto 
it hereafter. 

Which may God of his infinite mercy grant, 
through our Loud and Saviour Jesvs Christ, to 
whom, with the father and the holy spirit, be 
glory and honour, praise and dominion, now and 
for ever. Amen. 

* Luke xv. 7. f Bom. viii. 17. 4 Matt.xiii. 43. 



41 


SERMON III. 


CoLOSSlANS IV. 1. 


Mailers give unto your Servants that which is 
just and equal, knowing that ye also have a 
Master in Heaven. 

I. IN the first discourse upon these words, was 
set forth the nature of that great and indispensa¬ 
ble duty, which binds all chriBtian masters and 
mistresses^!* to bring up their slaves in.the know¬ 
ledge and fear of God. 

II. In the second, was taken a short view of 
the principal advantages attending a due dis¬ 
charge of it, which were found to consist of such 
articles, as must necessarily promote our interest 
here, and our everlasting happiness hereafter j as 
it naturally tends to make them good servants, 
faithful to their trust, and honest and conscien. 
tious in the performance of their business.—-As it 
draws down the blessing of heaven upon onr sub¬ 
stance, and upon our own and their labours .’—and 
as it gives us the security of God himself, for the 
comfortable enjoyment of all the necessaries of life, 
if we thus, in the first place, seek to promote his 
kingdom and his rigthteousness. 

In regard to spiritual blessings, it appeared,—- 
that our endeavours to instruct these poor crea¬ 
tures, causes us to increase in that knowledge of 
D2 



42 


God, ami of his Sod Jesus, whom he hath sent, 
which our saviour hath assured us, is life enter- 
salthat it keeps the plague of sin from onr 
doors, and prevents the curse whieh always fol¬ 
lows wickedness :—that if helps us to an excel¬ 
lent plea in arrest of God’s judgment, and hides 
a multitude of sins :—and crowns all these bles¬ 
sings with eternal glories. 

To these may be added : 

That exalted pleasure which arises in the mind, 
upon the performance of acts of humanity and 
benevolence, especially those af a durable nature, 
which bid fair for a perpetuity ; bearing some re¬ 
semblance to that of our kind creator, when 
he took a review of every thing he had made , 
and behold it was very good ?*—the comfortable 
testimony of a good conscience, w itnessing the 
faithful discharge of that trust, our heavenly 
master hath committed to U3, according to the 
power and opportunity given :~~the assurance of 
God’s favbur and protection :—and the continual 
prospect of a glorious futurity.—All which are 
such noble encouragements, & firm supports under 
the greatest anxieties and troubles incident to hu¬ 
man nature, overbalancing the terrors of death 
itself, that the person who should grudge some 
time and pains to secure them, would wall.de¬ 
serve to want them in his greatest need. 

*111. W a come now to the consideration of th« 
third point proposed, viz. 

The common excuses and objections which are 
made, concerning this obligation of bringing 
»p our slaves in the knowledge and fear of 
God. 

* Gen.i. 31. 



43 


1st. It ii objected, that the mak ing them c hris- 
tians, only makes them more saucy and proud. 

dns. We ought, in charity, to suppose, that this 
common objection, arises rather from a want of 
consideration, than from any settled thought ot 
design :—aud that such as make it, (which I am 
sorry to say are very many) have taken it up has¬ 
tily and upon trust, without ever considering the 
dreadful consequences Sowing from it It throws 
a heavy reproach upou our holy profession, and 
carries in it an insinuation the more dangerous, as 
co ming o ut of our months. H we say that Christi¬ 
anity tends to make people worse, (which it must 
do, if it makes people more proud and saucy than 
they were before) what may not Heathens and In- 
’fideis eonndeatly report of ii ? The spies, who 
out of laziness aad eovvardico, brought up an evil 
report of the good land , * were not oniy destroyed 
themselves, but ail those likewise who gave cre¬ 
dit to their words :—And shall we not dread tha 
like coarse of forfeiting oar share in the heavenly 
Canaan, if we either spread abroad, or rashly be¬ 
lieve such evil reports and notions of the way to¬ 
wards it P Objections of this s ort may serve to 
justify us to unthinking mortals like ourselves, 
who may be giad either of excuse or example, to 
shelter their own negligence under : Bui before 
we admit them wa ought seriously to examine* 
whether they will justify as before God, and 
whether, upon weighing them in the balance of 
divine justice, they shall not be found tight and 
wanting. 

But besides the great danger of urging or en¬ 
tertaining such a notion, it is absolutely false and 

f roundless. Look upon the great pattern of our 
oly religion in the person of our Lord and Sa- 
* Numb. Chap. 13<h and 14th 



44 


viour Jesus Christ; who, though hi were a son , 
even the 8on of God, yet learned he obedience,*— 
made himself of no refutation , took upon him the 
form of a servant ,*t and tho’ he were rich, yet for 
our sakes became so exceeding poor,§ that while 
the foxes had their holes, and the birds of the air 

their nests , he had not where to lay his head.W- - 

So that his whole life, from his being laid in a 
manger to his being nailed to the cross, was one 
continued scene of lowliness and humiliation.— 
Examine well his doctrine, and that of his holy 
apostles ; hearken to him pronouncing blessings 
upon the poor in spirit, upon those that mourn, 
and upon the meek declaring, that whosoever 
shall humble himself as a little child, the same shall 
be greatest in the kingdom of heaven;^ —exhort¬ 
ing all his disciples to learn of him, far he was 
meek and lowly of hearty Listen to saint Peter, 
exhorting Christians to be clothed with humility ; 
because God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace 
unto the humble 4$—Hear saint Paul in particular 
(who speaks as if he had this very objection in 
his view) commanding Timothy to teach and ex¬ 
hort these things ; namely, “Let as many servants 
as are under the yoke, count their own masters 
worthy of all honor, that the name of God and 
his doctrine be not blasphemed. And they that 
have believing masters, let them not despise them, 
because they are brethren; but rather do service 
because they are faithful, and beloved, partaking 
•f the benefit :”tt And say whether any thing 
tan be insinuated more falsely and wickedly, than 
that the making any one a Christian can possibly 
make him proud or saucy ? 

*Heb. v, 8 fPhil. ii. 7 $2 Cor. via. 9 ||Matt. viii 20 
v. 3,4 ,5 Matt, xviii. 4 §§Matt xi 29 

« 1 Pet, v. 5 Jaro iy 6 tt * Tiia vi 12 



45 


We see then, my brethren, the fault does not 
consist in the religion, but in the want of it :— 
and must be owing entirely to other causes* not to 
a»y defect in the doctrines or examples recorded 
in the holy scriptures. 

Such, therefore, as cherish this objection, and 
think there is something in it, must needs have 
very undue notions of the religion they profess, 
and do not sufficiently distinguish between being 
baptized and being made Christians in fact and 
deed. For though both tend to the same purpose 
viz. the salvation of souls thro’ faith in Christ ; 
yet they may in effect be very different things.— 
A person who has been duly baptized, may yet 
perish eternally ; but a Christian in fact and deed, 
by which 1 mean one who to baptism adds faith, 
practice, and perseverance, can never perish.-— 
And though nonecau become members of Christ’s 
church, or be admitted into the glorious privile¬ 
ges of the gospel without entering in by the door 
of baptism, where it may be had ; yet a person 
may be brought into Christ’s fold through that 
door, who, by staying out of it, or breaking thro’ 
the fences of that inclosure, may be forever shut 
out from the presence of God in his glory. So 
that the difference between being baptized and 
being made Christians, in truth and fact, may re¬ 
ally be as wide as is the distance between heaven 
and hell. Nor, indeed, is it much to be wondered 
at, that these poor ignorant creatures, who are 
guided more by their eyes than by reason or re¬ 
flection, should fancy baptism, and going to 
church now and then, is enough to bring them tp 
heaven, without ever thinking of the practice of 
humility, sobriety, fidelity, and the like duties, 
when they see numbers of white people , who call 
themselves Christians, setting up a title to eternal 



46 


happiness, and laying claim to tlie endless glorieg 
of heaven, upon no better foundation than bap- 
tism aud outward profession, while the general 
course of their lives runs quite contrary ; espe¬ 
cially when no pains are taken to set them right 
hy proper instruction, and honestly telling them, 
that such people as have made a solemn vow at 
their baptism to renounce sin, the world and the 
devil, and to serve God all the days of their life, 
and yet neglect performing it, are really in a very 
bad way : for that, unless persons endeavor to 
live up to the rules of their profession, they are 
so far from being Christians indeed, that they only 
deceive themselves, and mislead others ;—anil 
that Christ will not own any such, to be his, or 
shew any mercy to them at the great day of judg¬ 
ment, unless they repent and amend, and live ac¬ 
cording to his laws. 

But if this objection were to be stated in its 
proper terms, stripped of all the gloss and dis¬ 
guise which self-deceit puts upon it, and laid 
down as it really is at the bottom of our hearts; 
buried under heaps of fair pretences, it is more 
than probable it would be found to stand thus.— 
We are afraid of putting our slaves in the way to 
serve God, and to reverence him, for fear they 
should be wanting in some respect and reverence 
for us. Should we teach them that God is to be 
obeyed rather than man, they might, upon parti¬ 
cular occasions, take it in their heads to call our 
commands in question , or, should we instruct 
them, that there is a God in heaven to bo wor¬ 
shipped, who is our master as well as theirs, and 
their father and maker as well as ours, they will 
no longer perhaps look upon us as Gods upon 
earth ; nay, will think us no better than their fel¬ 
low-servants to that great master who is over all; 



47 


or at most, than elder ehild’ren of their father 
which is in heaven, ami will behave towards us 
accordingly. Give me leave here, my brethren, 
(o put a parallel case. Suppose an overseer at 
one of your quarters, should set up for master 
and proprietor among your slaves, and teach them 
no respect or obedience to you in person, for fear, 
as he should pretend, that they would not be obe* 
dient or respectful enough to him, if they should 
once know that ho was only an upper servant. 
What notion would you entertain of such a man? 
Or say, honestly, would you think him an over¬ 
seer fit to be employed ? I dare affirm you would 
not. You would think him a proud, saucy crea¬ 
ture, and lay all the disrespect and insults you 
might happen to meet with from your slaves to 
his charge, who industriously kept them ignorant 
oftheir duty to you ; and would turn him oft with 
the disgrace he deserved. Should we then, my 
brethren, so.judge in a point wherein our own ho¬ 
nor seems to be concerned, and shall the Almigh¬ 
ty be quite regardless of what relates to his lionoT 
and worship ? Hath he not revealed himself to 
us, under the notion of a jealous God, and declar¬ 
ed pxpressly them that honour me, I will honour ; 
and they that despise me, shall be lightly esteem¬ 
ed Let us then take heed, lest the objection 
return with double force upon ourselves, and the 
charge of pride and haughtiness fall heavy 
where it Is most doe ; namely, upon such as make 
and cherish such idle objections to the dishonor 
of Christ, and the discredit of those holy laws, 
to which we profess an obedience we are far from 
paying. 

JBut supposing/ what is very probable, that 
some slaves upon being baptized, have actually 

f 1 Sam. ii 30 



48 


grown proud and saucy. The objection in that 
case must run thus. Having got a notion that 
baptism intitled them to great privileges, and 
having no knowledge of the true nature of those 
privileges., which are really spiritual, and do 
chiefly belong to a future state ; and imagining 
they had a right to them in this life, they had 
taken greater liberties than they ought to have 
done upon that mistake ; and this notion prevail¬ 
ing in general among the Negroes,makes it unad- 
viseable to permit their being baptized, lest they 
should grow mutinous and ungovernable upon ac¬ 
count of it. This is the only view in which this 
objection can appear with any shew of reason ; 
and as such furnishes the strongest argument in 
favor of the obligation I would now enforce, viz. 
The necessity of instructing them in the princi¬ 
ples of Christianity, and bringing them up in the 
knowledge and fear of God ; since it is only 
their want of that instruction which gives them 
such wrong notions of the faith they profess in 
baptism ; and this owing to nothing but the want 
of care iu their owners to have them better 
taught. 

Since, therefore, this objection is so weak and 
trifling, as well as false at the bottom, let us 
throw it aside with all the foolish pride aad self- 
deceit which attend it; and labor faithfully and 
earnestly for their conversion and instruction, 
that they may be meekand humble indeed : for 
it seems plainly demonstrable, that these poor 
creatures will generally prove grateful and obe. 
dient, in proportion to the banefit received from 
us; that is, in short,according to the progress they 
make in Christian knowledge, and the pains ta¬ 
ken in teaching them. 

2dly. It is objected, They are such stubborn 
creatures, there is no dealing with them. 



49 


Answer —Supposing this to be true of most of 
them (which I believe will scarcely be insisted 
an :)—may it not fairly be asked, whence doth 
this stnbbomness proceed ?—Is it from nature ? 
-That cannot be —for I tbiuk it is gene¬ 
rally acknowledged that new J\egroes, or those 
born in and imported from the coast of Guinea , 
prove tho best and most tractable servants. Is 
it then from education ?—for one or the other it 
must proceed from—But pray who had the care 
of bringing up those that were born here ?—Was 
it not yourselves ?—And might not an early care, 
of instilling good principles into them when 
young, have prevented much of that stubborn¬ 
ness and untractableness you complain of in coun¬ 
try-born negroes ?—These, you cry out, are 
wickeder than the others :—and, pray, where 
did they learn that wickedness?—Was it not 
among ourselves ?—for those who come immedi¬ 
ately from their own country, you say, have more 

simplicity and honesty_A sad reproach to a 

ehristian people indeed ! that such poor ignorant 
heathens shall lining better morals and disposi¬ 
tions from home with them, than they can learn 
or actually do contract amongst us 1 

Let us, therefore, my brethren, be ashamed of 
such objection*, as lay us open to reflections of 
this nature;—and rather strive to beDd their 
stubbornness, and solten their tempers, by bring¬ 
ing them under subjection to the laws uf the 
Gospel $—and to infuse that mildness and gentle¬ 
ness into their dispositions, which the doctrine 
of Christ never fails to produce in such as, 
through the grace and blessing of Almighty God, 
are prevailed upon heartily and sincerely to re¬ 
ceive it. 

S dly, It is objected,—They are so ignorant ant! 



50 


tinfeachable, they cannot be brought to any know- 
edge in these matters. 

Answer. This objection seems to have little or 
no truth in it, with respect to the bulk of them.— 
Their ignorance, indeed, about matters of religion, 
is not to be disputed ;—they are sunk in it to a 
sad and lamentable degree, which has been 
shewu to be chiefly owing to the negligence of 
their owners—But that they are so stupid and 
unteachable, as that they cannot be brought to 
any competent knowledge in these matters, is 
false, and contrary to fact & experience. —In re¬ 
gard to their work, they learn it, and grow dex¬ 
terous enough in a short time.—Many of them 
have learned trades and manufactures, which 
they perform well, and with sufficient ingenuity : 
—whence it is plain they are not unteachable; do 
not want natural parts and capacities —Most 
masters and mistresses will complain ef their art 
and cunning in .contriving to deceive them.—Is it 
reasonable then to deny they can learn what is 
good, when at the same time it is owned they can 
be so artful in what is bad ?—Their ignorance; 
therefore, if born in the country, must absolutely 
be the fault of their owners:—and such as are 
brought here from Africa may, surely, be taught 
something of advantage to their own future state, 
as well as tu work for their masters present gain. 
—The difference plainly consists in this ;—that a 
good deal of pains.is taken to shew them how to 
labour, and they are punished if they neglect it.— 
This sort of instruction their owners take care to 
give them every day, and look well to it that it be 
duly followed.—But no such pains are taken in 
the other case.—They are generally left to them¬ 
selves, whether they will serve God, or worship 
jDevi/s—whether they wiU become Christians, or 



51 


remain heathens as long as they live .• as if either 
their 8011I9 were not worth the saving, or as if we 
were under no obligation of giving them aDy in¬ 
struction :—which is the true reason why so many 
of them who are grown up, and lived many years 
among us, are as entirely ignorant of the princi¬ 
ples of religion, as if they had never come into a 
ehristian country :—at least, as to any good or 
practical purposes. 

Besides, owners will take care to shew them 
how to work by their own, or their overseer’s and 
other servant’s examples :—and what they see 
done they readily imitate.—But say, my bre¬ 
thren, (for I appeal to your own knowledge, your 
own hearts, and your own observation) how few 
will take the pains to set a good example af piety 
and virtue before these poor people?—how few will 
labour to recommend godliness to their ser¬ 
vants by their own behaviour, or the devoat, reli¬ 
gious regulation of their families ?—-or will pu¬ 
nish an offence against the law's and majesty of al¬ 
mighty God, with an hundredth part of the exact¬ 
ness and severity they would any little disobedi¬ 
ence, or sauciness towards themselves ?--lt may 
well be supposed, thatifpeople were as negligent 
in setting them to work, or shewing them how to 
perform it, and seemed as little concerned about 
it, as they generally are about setting them for¬ 
ward in the ways of religion, there would he as 
Hud a complaint on the other side ;-->and we 
should then hear, that they were sueh ignorant 
creatures, they could not be taught to do any 
thing of service. 

■ Wily , It is objected,—many of them are so far 
gone in wickedness, so confirmed by habit in their 
evil ways, that it is in vain to undertake reclaim¬ 
ing them. 



52 


Answer ,—This is indeed a dreadful case ! and 
so far as there is any truth in it, throws a heavy 
charge upon us, who have suffered, them to run 
ench desperate lengths without striving to put 
some effectual stop to their evil courses.-~A 
charge we must answer severely for at the latter 
day !—But here it may be asked, whether much 
of that vvickedness may not proceed from their 
ignorance, and want of better instruction ?—Whe¬ 
ther the sad consequences of such behaviour, the 
hazard of their preciuus souls, and God’s eternal 
vengeance, if properly laid before them, might 
not terrify them from such proceedings ?—or the 
hope of his favour, and everlasting joys in hea¬ 
ven, allure them into the ways of piety and good- 
ness And if there he no more than a bare pos¬ 
sibility that this pious instruction, and these &yv- 
ful considerations may do good, w hat excuse cau 
we have for neglecting the use of them ?—Besides, 
hath floT Aimigmy Ggs put other means in our 
hands, by the authority he hath given us over 
them ?—Is not in our power to convince them, 
that wickedness will make them unhappy even in 
this life, by punishing them properly for it, w hen 
we find that they will not be restrained by (ha 
gentle, kind methods of advice and instruction?— 
Will any man pretend to find fault with me for 
correcting a swearing, drunken, lying or lewd 
slave, for.affronting my master and maker,.who 
will at the same time own I do well to correct a 
servant for affronting me, or despising my orders? 
And,till we have tried all possible means,how can 
we take upon us to say,(hat it is in vain to attempt 
reclaiming such a one ? If God were to deal so 
with us, my brethren, how wretched w r ould be our 
condition/—And how far ho may be provoked to 
do so, for our slights and neglects of these poor 



53 


creatures, is a matter well worth our mo3t serious 
consideration.—If, after so many repeated warn¬ 
ings, trials, and visitations, he were to give us up 
to our own perverse ways, and leave us as incor¬ 
rigible reprobates, with whom his spirit had 
been so long striving in vain how unavoidable 
would he our destruction !—how deserved our 
everlasting perdition !—But he in his mercy and 
long-suffering still continues the means of grace 
and salvation to us, notwithstanding our daily- 
abuse of his infinite goodness :—and never gives 
over his gracious trials, whilst he spares us life 
and senses to amend our ways.—In this, my bre¬ 
thren, it is out duty to imitate him, and never des¬ 
pair of reclaiming the worst of our slaves, while 
they remain under our care in this world,—-or 
grow weary of striving to do them good, whilst 
he continues unwearied in his trials to bring us 
home to heaven and happiness :—thus spurring 
us on to do it by his own divine example. 

5 th objection,—But some say, we have tried 
and laboured, yet have met with no success. 

Answer, —Instances of this sort, are indeed, 
very disheartening :—But are we sure there has 
been no mistake on our side ?—Have our trials 
been often repeated, at different seasons and inter¬ 
vals ?—Have they been well pushed, and with a 
sincere good will and conscience ?—Have »ve not 
tried before we got half way, and wanted not the 
means, but the heart to proceed forward ?—Have 
we not been discouraged without reasen, and left 
off, as we perhaps began, hastily, and without 
due consideration ?—Have we not shewn, in the 
course of our endeavours lor their conversion, 
some particular partiality to ourselves, which 
might give them a suspicion that we had our own 
wordly advantage at heart, more than the gain- 



54 


ing the souls over to God ?—Supposing that noth¬ 
ing of this sort hath been the case, but that after 
all our prudent, well-meaning endeavours, we 
have been hitherto unsuccessful, shall we never 
try again P—And will not God, who looks upon 
the heart and knows our sincerity, accept us 
graeiously upon account of our good intentions, 
and shall he not return the pains and labours we 
bestow upon the most obstinate reprobate, with 
interest into our own bosom ?—This, however, 
may be taken for fact :—that if we have tried 
many, and find all to be stupid, stubborn, or incor¬ 
rigible, it is ten thousand to one against us, that 
the failure has been owing to ourselves rather than 
to them, because of the different tempers and dis¬ 
positions iu different persons among them, as well 
as among us and if some prove irreclaimable, 
all, we are sure, are not so.—Let not, therefore, 
our want of success upon our first or second at¬ 
tempt discourage us :—hut let us still persevere, 
aud a blessing will assuredly attend us— Let us 
not be weary in well-doing ; for in due season we 
shall reap if we faint not.— But as we have op¬ 
portunity, let us do good unto all men, and es¬ 
pecially to such poor creatures as, being ingrafted 
into our families, are , or ought to become, a part 
of the houshold of faith. 

6th Objection,—Others again do say,-we 

are ignorant, unlearned people ourselves, and 
how can we teach others ? 

Answer,— I would not here, my brethren, insist 
upon an observation I have often made, and which 
I doubt not many in this congregation have taken 
notice of in their dealings among mankind, viz. 
That persons who are ready enough to plead ig¬ 
norance, or poverty, when it may stand for an 
excuse, or serve a present turn, would be highly 



affronted to be called ignorant or poor, on any 
other occasion :— But would rather ask a few 
questions,—Do you think you have knowledge 
enough to bring your own souls to heaven, through 
the grace oI'God, by living up to what you know ? 
—If you thiuk you have not, why do you neglect 
to learn better ?—Do you know ol any tiling 
which is, or can be, of greater consequence to 
you than the eternal happiness or misery of your 
precious soul9 ?■—And if you think you want any 
knowledge necessary for their security, why do 
you delay one moment to seek after it, or to make 
the attaining of it your first & principal concern; 
as it is plainly of more importance to you than 
the loss or gain of the whole world?—If you 
have (hat knowledge which by living up to it will, 
through God’s grace, bring yon to Heaven, you 
can surely communicate it to others, as easily as 
you could shew them how' to handle a hoe, a 
spade, or other implement of husbandry, whose 
use you are acquainted with, or teach them any 
sort of manufacture you are able to perform your¬ 
selves. 

This ignorance, you see, is one of the worst ex¬ 
cuses you can offer, which will neither acquit you 
before God nor man ; since it can be owing-to no¬ 
thing but want of regard to your own souls:—as 
you live in a Christian country, where you Ji&ve 
ministers to instruct you, profess an obedience to 
Jaws which you pretend you know nothing of, and 
claim eternal happiness in heaven upon certain 
conditions, which you own, in making this objec¬ 
tion, you are utter strangers to:—than which 
there, surely, cannot be shewn a stronger in¬ 
stance of folly and stupidity.-The true reason 

why people are often so ignorant, is this;—They 
have no hearty, sincere desire, to know their 



56 


duty :—They find it something uneasy in the per¬ 
formance, and care not ho tv little their consci¬ 
ence is troubled with a sense of it.— This is the 
condemnation , saith our saviour in his discourse 
with JVicodemus, that light is come into the world , 
and men loved darkness rather than light, because 
their deeds were evil. For every one that doeth 
evil, hateth the light: neither cumeth to the light , 
lest his deeds should be reproved .*—Here is the 
source of religious ignorance pointed out by 
Chris r himself :—and will always hold good iu 
eases like ours, where the light of the gospel is 
strongly dispensed to us, and where nothing but 
the daikness of our own inclinations, (whichwe 
seem industriously to cherish) can possibly pre¬ 
vent its shining forth in full lustre in our hearts 
and in our actions-—This wilful, studied ignor¬ 
ance, is the cause why we cannot instruct others : 
and while we keep in darkness ourselves, we can¬ 
not be supposed eapable of enlightening our be¬ 
nighted brethren—Whereas, if we had the same 
regard to religion, and the true interests of our 
souls, as we havefor our worldly affairs, and the 
provision for our bodies, we would endeavour to 
become equally acquainted with them, and he as 
able desciibe our notions of them to others, as 
we are to explain matters which we study, talk a- 
bout, labor at, and are conversant in, every day 
of our lives. 

In answer to such as make this objection with a 
well-meaning humility, and a real doubt of their 
own qualifications for undertaking the office of 
teachers in their families •, it may be observed to 
them, that there are not wanting instances of 
many pious, unlearned persons, who, without the 
helpof miracles, or any extraordinarygifts, have, 
* John iii. 19, 20. 



57 


by God’s blessing upon their devout endeavours^, 
done much good in this way. Apollos was a man 
eloquent and mighty in the scriptures ; and being 
fervent in spirit, spake boldly in the synagogues of 
the Jews, and taught diligently the things of the 
Lord, but only knew the baptism of John:-—* 
whom when Aquila and Priscilla (a man and his 
wife who were both Lay-People) had heard, they 
took him unto them, and expounded unto Mm the 
way of God more perfectly :*—thus becoming, 
through the grace of the Almighty,blessed instru¬ 
ments of confirming and perfecting the faith of 
this great man, who thenceforth became one of 
the chief and boldest champions in the cause of 
ehristianity.—Let this example, my brethren, en¬ 
courage you to do the like :—throw aside all fears 
of disappointment:—teach your poor benighted 
slaves as much as you know yourselves ;—and 
freely hold forth that light of the gospel which 
you so freely hare received :—rest the success 
upon the grace and goodness of Almighty God, 
praying for his blessing upon your pious endea¬ 
vours :—and where yon find yourselves at any 
loss, consult your minister, or sueh good Books 
as you tnay have an opportunity of procuring, and 
doubt not of receiving extraordinary helps front 
that blessed spirit which our Saviour hath pro¬ 
mised shall remain in his Church for ever. 

it is objected,—That the conversion and 
instruction of the negroes, is a matter which re¬ 
quires much time and labour ;—more than mas¬ 
ters can well spare from their necessary affairs, 
or cau be given to slaves, to the prejudice and 
neglect of their owner’s business. 

Answer, —This objection might very well coma 
front the mouth of an infidel, who had no settled 
* Acts xviii. 24, 25, 26. 



58 


faith in Christ, no dependence upon a divine, 
over-ruling providence; no fixed hope of a future 
reward.—But for such as profess this belief, this 
dependence, and these hopes, to offer such an ex¬ 
cuse, is strange and unaccountable !—Is not this, 
in effect, to declare that they love this world, its 
interests and enjoyments, too well to think of giv¬ 
ing up the least part of them for the sake of their 
interests in the world to come ?—Is not this to 
acknowledge, in other words, that no considers,- 
tion of propagating the gospel of Christ, or en¬ 
deavours for saving the souls of men, ought to 
fake them in the least from their other pursuits, 
or make any abatement in the temporal profit or 
leisure of the masters who have slaves under 
their care ?—Does not this betray a distrust in 
God’s providence, or his goodness, as if he could 
not or would not make up to them what little 
they might happen to lose in that way, by bless¬ 
ing and prospering their undertakings at home 
and abroad, in the house and in the field, as a 
just reward of their zeal for his glory, and the 
salvation of mens souls ?—Does not this shew, 
that such objectors have more regard for a small 
inconsiderable part of the labours and profits of 
their slaves, than for the glory of God, or the 
good of their own and their servants souls ?— 
And is not this denyiug to these poor people that 
which is just and equal , and forgetting that they 
themselves have a master in heaven? 

Besides, it may be observed, that this difficulty 
chiefly occurs at the beginning, and must neces¬ 
sarily lessen by degrees, as the number of uncon¬ 
verted, untaught slaves, shall, by the use of our 
pious endeavours, grow less and less.—Those 
that are iustructed, may be made use of to instruct 
others, and the owner’s labour and care be, by so 



59 


much, relieved.—And let it be remembered, that 
the longer we defer it, the stronger this objection 
must needs grow, and the more difficult in fact-to 
be overcome, by reason of (he natural increase of 
slaves, especially in larger families.—The soon¬ 
er, therefore, we seriously set about this duty, the 
less pains w ill be required to perform it, and the 
greater must be the probability of success. 

Some other objections will property fall under 
the consideration of the fourth point proposed, 
viz. In what manner this indispensable duty of 
bringing up our slayes in the knowledge and fear 
of God, may best be performed ; to which, there¬ 
fore, they are referred.—In the mean time, let us 
consider well what has been said:—let us honestly 
acknowledge the weakness of our objections, and 
folly of our excuse* :—let us, as true Christians 
ought lo do, be ready to cast down every imagina¬ 
tion or worldly self-interested reasoning ; every 
high thing suggested by pride and self-conceit, 
that exaltetli itself against propagating the know¬ 
ledge of God * among our poor ignorant slaves :— 
And may the Almighty giver of life and light 
open our understandings, that we may not only 
see ourselves, but be enabled to teach those who 
remain in darkness and ignorance, the things 
wliich belong to their and our everlasting peace, 
through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ- 
Jlmen. 

* 2 Cor. r. 5. 



60 


SERMON IY. 


Co LOSS IAN'S IV. 1. 


Masters give unto your Servants that which is 

just and equal, knowing that ye also have a 

Master in Heaven. 

Having shewn, in the former discourses upon 
these words, 

I, That all masters and mistresses are under 
an indispensable obligation of bringing up 
their slaves in the Knowledge and fear of 
God. 

II. That the due performance of this duty is 
necessarily attended with many great and 
singular advantages, both in respect of this 
world, and of the world to come. And 

ill. That the common objections and excuses 
which people make for neglecting it, are vain 
and trifling; having no better foundation than 
mistake, pride, laziness, too much care for 
the world, or too little care about matters re¬ 
lating to God and religion. 

It now remains, as was at first proposed, to 
consider, 

IV. In what manner this duty may best beeper- 
formed, to the discharging of our consciences, 
and with the greatest probability of success. 



61 


It is certain, that the pious,well-disposed Chris¬ 
tian, who sets about this duty with a sincere de- 
sire of promoting the glory of God and the eter¬ 
nal happiness of his poor slaves, will want very 
little instruction how to perform it. His own 
sincerity and zeal for the salvation of their souls, 
will hint ten thousand methods of going to work, 
and make him watchful over every circumstance 
that can any way contribute to the success of 
hi® godly designs. It is also certain, that great 
allowances are to be made for the particular tem¬ 
pers and dispositions we may meet with among 
them, and our manner of dealing with them, in 
order to bring them to God, must needs be suited 
to the different turns of their genius and under¬ 
standing ; all which seem to make directions of 
this sort less necessary, or less useful. A few 
general rules, may, however, be laid down; which 
may serve as a foundation for our proceedings 
herein, and may be varied according to the wants 
and circumstances of every Christian family. 

And, as the best beginnings always promise the 
fairest endings, it seems necessary, 

1. To begin w ith a serious reformation of our 
own lives and conversations . 

This, my brethren, is undoubtedly the most ra¬ 
tional foundation we can propose to build upon 
with hopes of success. If we would persuade 
people that certain things are bad or hurtful, we 
must let them see that we take care to avoid 
what we condemn If we would convince people 
that some things are good and desirable, we must 
shew by our behaviour that we really seek after, 
and strive to obtain those matters ;—otherwise 


they will not believe us.—If our advice goes oue 
wav, and our conduct run9 another course, we lay 
ourselves open to a charge, either of lying and 

F 



hypocrisy, in saying things are so and so, when 
it seems plain from our behaviour that we are not 
in earnest-or else of the greatest weakness, 
folly, and stupidity, in acting contrary to what is 
right,with our eyes wide open,against the strong¬ 
est evidence and calls of conscience and interest. 
—Nothing shuts up the mouth more effectually, 
or ties the tongue in stronger bonds,than a consci¬ 
ousness of vice and immorality; when every word 
we speak; every argument we use in favour of 
piety and virtue, throws a slinging reproach upon 
our own conduct, and pronounces the sentence of 
our own condemnation.—Nor, indeed, could any 
thin? be Supposed more ridiculous, than to see a 
notorious,idle, drunken fellow, rise up in his cups 
and strive to recommend industry and sobriety to 
all the by-standers.—This sort of absurdity is 
■finely pointed out in St. Paul’s words to a Jewish 
teacher.— {t Behold, thou art called a J.ew, and 
« restest in the law, and inakest thy boast of God; 
« and knowest his will, and approvest the things 
a that are more excellent, being instructed out of 
“ the law and art confident that thou thyself art 
*« a guide of the blind, a light of them which are 
« in darkness, an instructor of the foolish, a 
(t teacher of babes ; which hast the form of know- 
« ledge and of the truth in the law.—Thou, 
a therefore* which teachest another, teachest thou 
n n ot thyself ? Thou that preachest, a man 
a should not steal, dost theu steal ? Thou that 
« gayest a man should not commit adultery, dost 
cc thou commit adultery ? Thou that abhorrest 
« idols, dost thou commit sacrilege ? Thou that 
“ makest thy boast of the law, through breaking 
« of the law dishonourest thou God *? ■ 

After which the apostle points out the natural 
♦ Rom.ii. IT, &c. 



63 


evil consequence of mens pretending to reform 
others, while they want to be Informed them¬ 
selves. viz. that it tends to harden the hearts of 
unbelievers, and to give them a bad opinion of the 
religion recommended to them .—For the name of 
GOD, saith he, is blasphemed among the gentiles 
through you. 

In short, my brethren, our servants have eyes 
as well as ears, and take in their notions much 
sooner by the one, than by the other.—What they 
see they ean readily understand, and may speedi¬ 
ly be brought to imitate;—but reasoning and 
argument require more time and consideration; 
are not so easily apprehended, and, if opposed by 
our own behaviour, lose all their force.—The 
most ignorant among them, ean plainly perceive 
that it must be an advantage to us, if we ean.per- 
suade them to believe and behave like good 
Christians -And is it not natural poDugh 
them, when we recommend conscience, hoaeaty, 
fidelity, and temperance to them, at the same 
time that we shew little regard to these inattei*' 
in our own lives and conversations, to suspect 
that we want to put a cheat upon them, and to 
tie them up to rules,which we da not think neces¬ 
sary for ourselves to observe ;—and that it is our 
own interest, not the good of their souls which 
we really have at heart ?—Aod, surely, to preach 
up the doetriues of Christianity to them, while wo 
seem to have but little eoaeern about putting 
them in practice,or fear of God’s tbreatenings de¬ 
nounced against the impeniterit and disobedient, 
must give them a reasonable doubt of our sinceri. 
*y.—Besides, sin is a disorder of the most catch. 
ii|!g, infectious kind In our present state of 
corruption and infirmity, we are naturally prone 
16 it j— it flatters our senses, and courts our pas- 


64 


aioHs, and is therefore sooner learnt, and deeper 
impressed upon the mind, than practical lessons 
of piety and morality, which combat our sensual 
desires, and require gome degree of mortification 
and self-denial.-—So that examples of it are al- 
■ways dangerous to the beholders; especially if the 
sinner have a credit and authority with those 
who are witnesses of their conduct.—Men readily 
fall into the .vays and csstoms of their superiors, 
aud think they pay a compliment to their under¬ 
standing and judgment, in imitating their man¬ 
ners.?—From all which considerations it is evi¬ 
dent, that if we would attempt to reform our ser¬ 
vants, with any probability of success, we must 
begin it with a serious reformation of our own 
Jives and conversations, and shew them by our 
condutt, that we really believe it to be a duty re¬ 
quired of all men, to forsake their sins, and a- 
anend. their Uvps ;—and convinee them by this 
solid proof, that we are in earnest, before we can 
expect they should give credit to what we say, 
«r seriously strive to be those good and faithful 
servants to God and iis, which we tell them it is 
their duty to become. 

I have dwelt the longer upon this head, be¬ 
cause it is of the utmost importance, and seems to 
he but little considered among us.—For there is 
too much reason to fear, that the many vices and 
immoralities so common among white people 
the lewdness, drunkenness, quarrelling, abusive¬ 
ness, swearing, lying, pride, backbiting, over¬ 
reaching, idleness, and sabbath-breaking, every 
where to be seen among us, are a great encourage¬ 
ment to our Negroes to do the like, and hefip 
strongly to confirm them in habits of wickedneas 
and impiety. 

2dljj, We ought not only to avoid giving them 



65 


Bad examples, and abstain from all appearance of 
evil, but also strive lose/ a daily good example 
before their eyes ,* that seeing us lead the way iu 
our own pferson, they may more readily be per¬ 
suaded to follow us in the wholesome paths (if 
religion and virtue. 

This would be to imitate our blessed Saviour 
himself, who not only taught us the will of God, 
but gave us an exact pattern of obedience to it, in 
his own most innocent and holy life ; and who is 
called the way, to teach us, that, as no man 
cometh to the father but by him $f so the true ft ay 
to Heaven is to tread in bis steps, and to follow 
that track, which he hath mark’d out for us.— 
This he farther recommends to us in the following 
precept, which on account of its excellency and 
importance, stands at the head of the sentence in 
the offertory in our communion service : Let your 
light so shine before men , that they may see your 
goods works, and glorify your father which is m 
Heaven ;t—which teaches us, that a good exam¬ 
ple is like a shining, radiaut light, whose beauty 
and brightness engages men to draw near to it 
and follow it ; thus proving an iuBtrurriental 
cause of God’s glory, the most exalted and 
noblest end for which we were sent into this 

wor lil ; _And which, no doubt, will be rewarded 

with a far more exceeding and eternal weight of 
glory § in the world to Come. 

Such a course of reformation anu godliness* 
hath been recommended in the two foregoing 
heads, must needs he of the utmost advantage to 
ourselves.—For if it should work no effect upon 
the mind* of our servants, which scarce seems 
probable, yet we should thereby save our own 
* X Tlies. V 22. f John xiv. 6,* 
f Matt, v 16. $ 2Cor.iv. 1?. 

F 3 



66 


souls, through God’s Mercy in Christ, and se¬ 
cure an interest and possession for ever in Hea- 
ven. 

3 dly, To this serious reformation of our lives 
and good example, vve must add constant and 
earnest prayer to Almighty God, for his blessing 
upon oar faithful pious endeavours. 

When we attempt the conversion of sinners and 
infidels, we engage in the immediate cause of 
God ; and herein, as before observed, we are no 
more than instruments of his glory and the good 
of others.—The employment is, indeed, the most 
honourable w& eau undertake, as we thereby be¬ 
come workers together with Christ* in promoting 

the salvation of mankind.-And surely, we 

need no stronger motive, for daily presenting our 
most humble and pressing petitions to the throne 
of grace, that he may account us worthy of so 
great honour, and assure us of his gracious accep¬ 
tance, by crowning our labours with desired suc¬ 
cess. 

By these prayers, offered up in the sincerity of 
our hearts, we acknowledge our own weakness* 
and insufficiency, and our daily want of the divine 
assistance :—For who, my brethren, among us, 
is sufficient for these things? t—Sy these we own 
our absolute dependence upon him, and bid defi¬ 
ance to boasting and pride, the worst and most 
dangerous of all spiritual evils.—By these we 
preserve ourselves in a due state of humility, 
and cheek all foolish, aspiring thoughts, of our 
own worth and understanding.—And by these we 
obtain the help of that holy spirit, whose grace 
and influence must complete the work, and give 
success to our pious endeavours.—To which end, 
it will be proper for us always to keep in remew- 
* 2 Cor. vi. 1 t 2 Cor. ii. 16. 



07 


France, these memorable words of St. Paul, which 
are recorded for our iustruction in these matters, 

_ I have •planted, Jfpollos watered, but God gave 

the increase.—So then, neither is he that planteth 
any thing, neither he that watereth $ but God that 
giveth the inciease.§ 

Wickeduess and infidelity, may well be com¬ 
pared to a certain kind of evil spirits, which go 
not out but by Prayer and Pasting,\\ and which 
the disciples themselves could not cast out, for 
want of a faithlul use of those means.—And if 
we would cast a spirit of paganism, of error, or 
profaneness out of our servants, we must have re¬ 
course to frequent prayer, as that which gives the 
best edge and temper to those weapons, with 
which we make an attack upon the kingdom of 
darkness. 

This was our saviour’s own method, when he 
was upon earth.—Thus we are told by StLwfce, 
that the evening before he made choice'of his 
twelve Apostles, he went out into a mountain to 
pray, and continued all night in prayer to God.* 
And no doubt his earnest addresses to his hea¬ 
venly father, were ts obtain a blessing on their 
miniatry, and success to their labours.—Thus did 
he pray for Peter, that his faith might not fail, f 
—Thus did he pray for all his disciples, and not 
for them alone§, but for all them that should be¬ 
lieve on him thro ’ their word .\—By virtue of this 
prayer, was the holy Ghost sent into bis church, 
to be its comforter and companion for ever :— 
And by the same method, does he now continue 
to carry on the great concerns of his mediatorial 
kingdom; sitting on the right hand of the father, 

§ 1 Cor. iii. 6, 7 ■ |) Matt xvii. 19, 21. 

♦ Luke vi. 12,13. f Luke xxii. 32. § John xvii. 29. 

* John xiy. 16. 



6 $ 


a ml ever making intercession for all those that 
come to God by him .*—To this purpose, are those 
frequent praters of St. Paul , for those he labour* 
cd to bring to God* and particularly that remark¬ 
able one in his Epistle to the Philippians , wherein 
he prays, that they might abound more and more 
in knowledge and in judgment ; that they might 
not only approve the things that are excellent, but 
also continue in the same, in sincerity and with¬ 
out offence, till the day of Christ .ft 

4f/i, Besides this daily, fervent prayer in pri¬ 
vate to God for their conversion, we ought to 
establish the constant use of family prayer in our 
houses. 

To the general, shameful negleet of this duty, 
is owning a vast deal of that carelessness, remis- 
ness, irregularity and disorder, which prevail so 
much amongst us.—And, truly, so little of the 
worship of God is to be seen in our houses, that, 
(to our reproach be it spoken) were a siraDger to 
travel through the country, except what he might 
observe at Church on Sundays, or in a very few 
pious families, it would be difficult for him to 
judge what sort of religion we professed or, in¬ 
deed, whether we had any religion at all. 

By establishing family worship in our houses, 
we not only engage the particular favour and pro¬ 
tection of God, whose presence and influence wilt 
never be wanting, where two or three are gathered 
together in his name:— but we thereby keep up a 
continual sense of our duty to him; a desire of be¬ 
ing approved by him; an hatred and abhorenee 
of sin, and an holy awe of his displeasure ; and 
teach our poor ignorant slaves an heavenly lan¬ 
guage, in which they may learn to address their 
great creator, and pray for blessings upon them- 
* Itch. vii. 25. tt Philip, i. 9, 10. 



60 


selves and ui.—This also will teach them & de¬ 
cent and orderly behaviour; reclaim the rough¬ 
ness and fiereenes of their nature; form their 
minds to modesty and mildness, and iucrease their 
love and respect to us, in proportion as they ad¬ 
vance in reverence and veneration towards Al¬ 
mighty Gan. 

5th, We ought to read and study the holy Scrip¬ 
tures ourselves, that we may be better prepared 
to read and explain diem to our children and 
slaves. 

And, surely, if we would pretend to teach di¬ 
vine knowledge to others, we must first seek to 
obtain it onrsclves; For it is rank nonsense, to 
offer to teach a lesson we never learnt or studied. 
—The word of God is an inexhaustible fountain 
of heavenly truth, whence all that will apply for 
it, may not only draw a sufficiency for their own 
wants, but with its overflowings, may supply the 
necessities of others that thirst after it.—The 
care of our own souls, as well as those of our ser¬ 
vants, requires this duty at our hands ; nor can 
any stronger motive be urged, for a serious and 
diligent study of the holy Scriptures, than that 
they are able to make us and them wise unto salva¬ 
tion, thro’ faith in Christ Jesus,* —And to these 
spiritual ones,as a farther encouragement, may be 
added those temporal blessings promised by the 
holy Psalmist, to the man whose delight is in the 
law of the Lord, and who meditates therein day 
and night',]--' namely, that he shall be like a tree 
planted by the rivers of water , that bringeth forth 
his fruit in season : his leaf also shall not wither 
and whatsoever he doth shall prosper. 

6th, We ought to make this reading, and study¬ 
ing the holy scriptures, and the reading and ex« 
* 2 Tim. iii. 16. t PsaL 1 2 > 3- 



70 


plaining them to our children and slaves, and the 
catechizing or instructing them in the principles 
of the Christian relegion, a stated duty . 

Thie may be done by setting apart particular 
times and seasons for the performance; which wo 
should resolve to observe, and never miss, but up¬ 
on very extraordinary and pressing occasions.— 
We may once a day at least,if not twice, bestow a 
small portion of our time iu reading, and medi¬ 
tating on the word of Gob —We may have our 
fixed hour for it, either morning, or evening, or 
both, as best suits our conveniency; and make a 
resolution never to break through these voluntary 
rules, or spend the hours we thus dedicate to the 
service of God, and the study of his laws, in any 
other employment, unless in eases of great neces¬ 
sity.—This reading and explaining some part of 
the scripture to our families, and catechizing or 
instructing our cliildreu ami slaves, in the princi¬ 
ples of the Christian religion, may be perfurmod 
once a week at least, and sunday evening may be 
set apart for that purpose ; thus ending the day, 
which we may suppose to have begun well at 
church , in the best and most edifying manner at 
home. 

These stated times once fixed upon, and begun 
with a settled resolution of observing them, will 
be found of great use, for keeping us in a steady, 
uniform practice of godliness and virtue,—They 
will make the worship and service of God fami¬ 
liar to us, and cause us to look upon it as a ne¬ 
cessary business of human life.—We shall soon 
begiu to feel the comfort and advantage of them, 
in the regulation of our lives, and the inward 
peace and lsatisfaction that arises from a consci¬ 
ousness of living iu the honest discharge of our 
duty, and the hopes of dyiDg in itAnd shall 



71 


find these performances, by degress, to become 
so pleasant and habitual, that we shall look for 
them, as we do for our stated time of food and 
refreshment, and be as uneasy at the neglect or 
omission of one of them, as we should be at the 
want of a meal, or our usual rest at its proper 
hour. 

The parts of scripture we attempt on such oc¬ 
casions to explain, uiay be sech particular passa¬ 
ges, or sentences of piety and morality, as have 
most strongly affected us in cur week-days medi¬ 
tations ; or perhaps, such as hare been explained 
in the sermon preached iu the morning, thus eon- 
firming the doctrines in our own memories, and 
impressing them upon the hearts and minds of 
our households, whieh will make those discourses 
doubly profitable to us. 

To teach them the church catechism, and. make 
them perfect in the answers, is a most useful 
work, and the best means of grounding them in 
the knowledge of God through Christ:—But to 
instruct them in the meaning of the words, is ab¬ 
solutely for their perfection in it. Many chil¬ 
dren shall be able to say the whole eatecliism by 
heart, without missing a single word : but when 
they are cross-questioned, or asked the same 
thing in words different front those set down in 
the questions, they shall not know what answer 
to give.—Catechising ought therefore, always to 
be accompanied with some short explanation, 
suited to the capacities of children or slaves ; and 
that may easily iie had in a variety of small 
pamphlets, published for that purpose by the re- 
li^ious Societies, and whieh, if wanting, I shall 
take care to supply. 

We ought to oblige them constantly to at¬ 
tend Church on SundaySf where the necessary 



72 


business and care of the house does not absolutely 
require their staying at home. 

This will not only be the most probable means 
of confirming them in their duty, and giving them 
a stronger sense and awe of the divine presence, 
but will keep them out of many disorders and 
irregularities they are apt to run, into one among 
another, when their masters and mistresses are 
gone to church ; such as visiting, drinking, 
junketing, hunting, fishing, and other idle,wicked 
practices,—And to this end, we ounht often to 
eall u*on them, to set aside their trifling excuses, 
to spur them on, and oblige them to draw near to 
God in his congregation, even when their own 
dispositions, if let alone, would not bring them to 
him.—And as there is a law to punish us if we 
oblige them to break the sabbath , so ought we to 
punish them severely for breaking it of their own 
accord, or neglecting the means offered them of 
grow ing better and happier. 

8th , It would be very proper to call them to ac¬ 
count on a Sunday evening , for what they have 
heard at church. 

This will not only help to rivet the instruction 
given them better in their memories, but will tie 
them down to a greater seriousness and attention 
—This will also discover, whether they really 
spent their time in church, or loitered it away in 
idleness and prating without doors, or in other 
bad, unprofitable methods, a9 is too frequent with 
them. 

9th, To engage them in a constant attendance 
upon their duty to GOD , we should shew them 
particular favour or displeasure, in proportion to 
their care or negligence in it. 

Thus does Almighty God himself deal with us ; 
—Kewards are proposed to the faithful and 



73 


persevering, and punishments threatened to the 
disobedient and slothful.—We, therefore, ought 
by our behaviour to convince them, that in order 
lo become our friends and favourites, they must 
endeavour to make themselves friends and favour¬ 
ites of God :—and shevy them by experience, that 
vve shall always have most regard, to such among 
them, as have the most regard for religion—This 
encouragement or discountenance, suited to their 
diligence or neglect in the duties of christiauitj’, 
must needs raise an emulation among them, who 
shall be the best: Since, by this sort of discipline 
strictly observed, they must perceive that the best 
will always be the greatest ; will hold the first 
rank in his master or mistress’s favour and confi¬ 
dence, and be honoured, trusted, and preferred be¬ 
fore all his brethren and fellow-servants.—This 
method I would therefore recommend to your 
serious consideration and practice. 

2. We ought in a particular manner to take 
care of the children, and instil early principles 
of piety and religion into their minds. 

If the grown up slaves, from confirmed habits 
of vice, are hard to be reclaimed, the children 
surely are in our power, and may be trained up 
in the way they should, go, with rational hopes 
that when they are old, they will not depart from, 
it. f— We ought, therefore, ‘to take the charge of 
tlieir education principally upon ourselves, and 
not leave them entirely to the care of their wick¬ 
ed parents.—If the present generation be bad, wa 
muy hope by this means that the succeeding ones 
will be much better. One child, well instructed, 
will take care when grown up to instruct his 
children ; and they again will teach their poste¬ 
rity good things.—And 1 am fully ol opinion, 
+ Prov. sxii. G. 

G 



that the commcn notion of wickedness running in 
the blood , is not so general in fact as to Jje admit¬ 
ted for an axiom. And that the vices we sea 
descending from parents to their children, are 
chiefly owing to ihe malignant influence of bad 
example and conversation.—And though some 
persons may be, and undoubtedly are, born with 
stronger passions and appetites, or with a greater 
propensity to some particular gratifications or 
pursuits than others, yet we do not want convinc¬ 
ing instances how effectually they may be re- 
straiued, or at least corrected and turned to pro¬ 
per and laudable ends, by the force of an early 
care, and a suitable education. 

To you of the female sex, (whom I have had 
occasion mere than once to take notice of with 
honour in this congregation) I would address a 
few words on this head_You, who by your sta¬ 

tion are more confined at home, and have tha 
care of the younger sort more particularly under 
your management, may do a great deal of good 

in this way_I know not when 1 have been more 

affeeted, or my heart touched with strouger and 
more pleasing emotions, than at the sight and 
conversation of a little negro boy, not above se¬ 
ven years old, who read to me in the new testa¬ 
ment, and perfectly repeated his catechism 
throughout, and all from the instruction of his 
careful, pious mistress, now I hope with God, en¬ 
joying the blessed fruits of her labours while on 
earth.—This example I would recommend to your 
serious imitation, and to enforce it shall only re¬ 
mark, that a shining part of the character of 
Solomon’s excellent daughter is, that she looketh 
well to the ways of her household .* 

But here I am aware of a very material ohjec- 
* Prov. xxxi. 27. 



75 

tion, which it is necessary to propose and consi¬ 
der, viz. 

“ The method here laid down will suit well 
“enough with small families, and such negro's 
“ as are continually about the house.—But what 
“ must be done in such families as have large 
“ numbers, dispersed in quarters, at a distance 
“ from the masters and mistresses habitations, 
“ where they cannot be visited and instructed in 
“ the manner, and with that care which is here 
“ proposed ?” 

This I own, my brethren, is a great difficulty; 
and though not easily removed at present, may 
yet in time be provided against.—To which end 
two things may principally be useful. 

i. To be careful in the choice of overseers. 

An overseer ought to be in a quarter, whst a 
master or mistress is in a family :—he supplies 
the place, and ought in some measure to be able 
to supply the use as well as to support the au¬ 
thority of the command intrusted to him.—Some 
such articles as the foregoing ought to be recom¬ 
mended to his practice, and the performance ex¬ 
pressly stipulated as a part of his duty ; and the 
neglect made penal by the terms of your agree¬ 
ment with him.-—I know it will here be object¬ 
ed ,—“ Where shall we get overseers so quali¬ 
fied ?*’—My answer is, you must do the best 
you can for the present ; and though you can¬ 
not hope to meet with such as you could wish 
for, yet shew your regard to this great duty, by 
choosing the best and soberest from among 
cuch as offer themselves.—And if it was once 
become a custom to insist cn moral and reli¬ 
gious qualifications in overseers, as well as know¬ 
ledge in plantation business, it would necessarily 
give a great check to the vices and abominations 



76 


which reign among the common people, and mako 
them more earnest and careful in giving such an 
education to their children, as would hereafter 
recommend them to a superior trust, to the great 
improvement and benefit of the province in gene¬ 
ral. 

Having now gone through the several heads 
proposed, and shewn that it is really the indispen¬ 
sable duty of every Christian master and mistress, 
to bring up their slaves in the knowledge and 
fear of God ;—that the faithful performance of 
it must necessarily be attended with great and va. 
luable advantages aud blessings, both in this 
world and the world to come ;—that the common 
excuses and objections against it, are all weak, 
vain, and trifling;—and having laid down a ra¬ 
tional method of performing it with probable as¬ 
surance of success, I shall conclude with a few 
observations upon the whole. 

The scheme this day proposed, being of a con¬ 
siderable extent, we cannot reasonably hope to 
see it brought to perfection in a shoit time, per¬ 
haps not in our days :—let us however, my bre¬ 
thren, have the honour and happiness of begin¬ 
ning it.—Let us proceed with patience, resolu¬ 
tion, perseverance and unweariedness, not suffer¬ 
ing ourselves to be discouraged or baulked by un - 
promising appearances, or difficulties arising at 
our first attempts:—and let us chearfully commit 
the success to Almighty God, whose work it is, 
and whose blessing upon our sincere endeavours, 
we have no room to doubt of.—The apostles 
themselves saw not a thorough establishmontof the 
faith of Christ in their days.—They planted it 
by their preaching, they watered it with their 
blood, and it took deep root; but it was several 
ages after their decease before it flourished and 



7.7 


spread over whole nations, or before rulers and' 
princes sprang from its branches.—We, my bre¬ 
thren, have the same seed to sow, he have the 
same heavenly promises for its increase, and if 
we plant with like faith and unweariedness, we 
may be certain of a proportional crop of the 
fruits of righteousness in due season. 

When Aloses, by the command of God, had 
given a system of divine laws to the children of 
Israeli we find him addressing them in these 
words.— Behold , I have taught you statutes and 
judgments, as the Loud my God commanded me, 
that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to 
possess it. Keep , therefore, and do them: for this 
is your wisdom and your understanding in the 
sight of all the nations, which shall hear of all 
these things, and shall say , truly this nation is a 
wise and an understanding people .*—The wis¬ 
dom of the ancient people of 'God, then, it seems, 
consisted in their knowledge of him and his laws, 
and in glorifying him before the heathen nations 
around them, by an exemplary regard and obedi¬ 
ence to his statutes and commandments.—We, 
my brethren, are their successors in the covenant 
with Gob;— we, like them, are put in possession 
of a good land by the favour of Providence, and 
in like manner are surrounded by heathen nations 
of Indians, whose conversion we are in conscience 
concerned to promote.—It is our duty, as it was 
anciently theirs, to glorify God in the sight of 
our pagan neighbours, that they looking upon us 
as a wise and understanding peoples who have 
God nigh unto us in all things we call ttpon him 
for, may be the readier to join themselves unto 
us, and in due time receive the faith of Christ, If 
we therefore are remiss in propagatiug the know* 

* Deut. iv. 5, 6, 7: 

G 2 



78 


ledge of God in our own families, cau we ever 
Lope to have a hand in'the glorious work of con¬ 
verting the native Indians? —If we suffer our 
poor Slaves to remain in ignorance, upon account 
of some smull expense in employing catechists, 
or some little supposed loss in sparing time for 
their instruction, shall we pretend to any share of 
this trne heavenly wisdom ?—Or shall it not ra¬ 
ther appear beyond all contradiction, that the 
advancement of oar wordly interest is the only 
object of eur wisdom and understanding ?—and 
that with the rich fool in the gospel,* we rather 
choose to lay up treasures here for ourselves than 
to be rich towards God. 

The honourable testimony which God himself 
gives of Abraham, and the peculiar confidence he 
reposed in that faithful servant, is expressed in 
the following words. Shall I hide from Jlbraham 
the thing which I do? Seeing that Jlbraham shall 
surely become a great and mighty nation , and all 
nations of the earth shall be blessed in him. For 
I know him , that he will command his children , 
and his household after him , and they shall keep 
the way of the Lord , to do justice and judgment , 
that the Lord may bring upon Jlbraham that 
which he hath spoken of Mm. f Can the utmost 
stretch of human ambition propose to itself any 
honour beyond that of being called the friend of 
God,§ as Jlbraham was ? —to converse familiarly 
with the Almighty ?—to be allowed -to stand in 
the gap of divine vengeance, and powerfully to 
intercede in favor of guilty nations, against whom 
the arm of the Loud was already up-lifted, as 
Jlbraham did in behalf of the unhappy cities of 
Sodom and Gomorrah ? 

* Luke sit 20, £!• f Gen. xviii, 17,18, 19; 

§ James ii. 23. 



V 


Would we, my brethren, partake of these ho¬ 
nours, these truly noble privileges?—would we 
covet an assured blessing, not only upon ourselves 
and our posterity, but also that blessings should 
be conveyed through us to people and nations, and 
to secure the testimony of conscience and of God 
himself in our favour ?—Let us then take the 
same steps for attaining them with this eminent 
and worthy servant of (he most high :—let us 
strive so to order our children and household, so 
to teach our descendants and slaves, that they 
may keep the way of the Loud to do justice and 
judgment after us, and become fit instruments for 
conveying the blessings received from us down to 
future generations, and spreading them abroad 
among these and other nations, who will have 
cause to bless and revere our memories :—and 
that the Lord may bring upon us whatever good 
he hath spoken, whatever happiness he hath pro¬ 
mised upon his own Almighty word, to such as 
love and fear him. 

Our blessed saviour at his first publick appear¬ 
ance in the synagogue of Nazareth, described his 
own divine mission, and the intent of jt, in the 
ivords of that gracious prophecy of Isaiah , which 
he was sent to fulfil .—The spirit of the Lord 
is upon me, because he hath anointed me to 
preach the gospel to the poor : he hath sent me 
to heal the broken hearted, to preach deliverance 
to the captives, and recovering of sight to the 
blind: to set at liberty them that are bruised, to 
preach the acceptable year of the Lord.”* —And 
when John the baptist, in order to confirm his 
disciples in the faith of Christ, sent tuo of them 
on a solemn embassy to him, with this demand,— 
“ Art thou he that should come, or do we look 
♦ St. Luke iv 3 16j £jfc. See. Isaiah lxi. 



80 ' 


for another ? Jesus answered and said urrte 
them, go and shew John those things which ye do 
hear and see:—the blind .receive their sight, and 
the lame walk; the lepers are cleansed* and the 
deaf hear ; the dead are raised up, and the poor 
have the gospel pre/Ached unto them.”!- — - 
Whence it is plain that as the Messiah, or anomted 
of God, was in pursuance of his office to preach 
the gospel to the poor , so the fulfilling of that 
gracious prophecy was the great mark of our 
saviour's being the Christ , or the anointed one in 
very truth:—A mark, without whieh all his won¬ 
derful works, even his raising the dead, would 
not have been sufficient.—And as such he adds it 
to those miraculous operations, and concludes 
with it in his answer to John’s disciples, as that 
which crowned and confirmed all the other divine 
and supernatural testimonies in his favour.— 
And the poor, saith he have the gospel preached 
unto them* Is theD, roy brethren, the preaching 
of the gospel to the poor and ignorant the great 
business of Christ’s coming into the world ?— 
Was this the very end for whieh he was anointed 
or made the Messiah , by the descent and resting 
of the spirit of God upon him ?—Are all other 
outward marks of Christ’s kingdom upon earth 
of no value or certainty where this is wanting ?— 
And is it from this alone that we can be fully as¬ 
sured of Christ’s presence among us ?—Is our 
blessed saviour the great pattern we ought to 
imitate ?—Would he have all men to be saved, 
and to come to the knowledge ef the truth ?— 
And is the promoting of this knowledge and sal¬ 
vation through christ a principal branch of that 
Christian charity recommended by St. Paul,* 
without which the speaking of all tongues, the 
t Matt. xi. 2,3, 4, 5. » 1 Cor. ziii. 



81 


gift of prophecy, the knowledge and understand¬ 
ing of all mysteries, the having faith sufficient to 
remove mountains, the bestowing all our goods 
to feed the poor, or even giving np our bodies 
to burning and martyrdom, can profit nothing, 
but is as vain and empty as the noise of sounding 
brass, or a tinkling cymbal. Then let us shew 
our charity by helping them to the attainment of 
the everlasting happiness of heaven.—Am^n. 





TO THE 


INHABITANTS 


OF THE 

PARISH OF S. P. 

IN THE 

Province of Maryland. 

My kind Neighbors and Parishioners . 

The two following discourses, which had your 
general approbation at the time of delivery, are 
now published, just as you heard them for the 
following reasons. 

I. That as many as had desired to borrow my 
notes, either te refresh their memories, or to take 
a copy of them, might be furnished with them iu 
an easier manner. 

II. That such pious and well-disposed persons, 
as are inclined to join with me in the necessary 
work of bringing up their Slaves in the know¬ 
ledge of God (by giving them private in¬ 
structions, as well as sending them to be taught 
at Church) may receive some assistance from the 



84 


heads , the method, or the hints hereiu laid down; 
*he whole being iutended to take in a general view 
of a Christian slave’s duty, 

III. That such among you as have conceived 
groundless jealousies about the instruction of 
slaves, may see plainly what sort of doctrines I 
do intend to teach them; the following discourses 
being, as it were, the original draught or founda¬ 
tion of all my future ones, which (excepting a few 
upon the first principles of Christianity) will, for 
the most part, be only larger explanations of those 
practical duties, which are little more than hint¬ 
ed here, and need often repeating, and much in¬ 
sisting upon, to such poor ignorant creatures as 
they are well known to be at present. —I mention 
this reason more particularly, because at the con¬ 
clusion of each sermon, when you were retired 
into the church-yard, your general remark was,— 
« Jf these poor creatures would but mind, and do 
as the minister has told them to day, they would 
make excellent 8layes.” 

IV. That such as have made objections to and 
misrepresented some passages in the following 
discourses, upon notions taken up at second hand 
(having not been at church when they were 
preached] jpay see their own mistakes and be con- 



85 

vinced, that there is nothing so dangerous or im. 
politic, in attempting to make good Christians of 
their slaves, or in laying the rewards, as well as 
the duties , of religion before them, as they seem 
fond of representing it at present. 

V. Because, it is possible, these plain discour¬ 
ses may fall into other hands, capable of improv¬ 
ing well-meant, though poorly executed schemes 
of this sort, to the noblest of purposes It may 
raise a spirit of emulation among my brethren, the 
clergy, to attempt something in their respective 
parishes, towards the bringing home so great a 
number of wandering souls to Christ; and pre¬ 
vail upon some of the laity, in our neighboring 
parishes, to join with their pastors for promoting 
so salutary an end; especially when they see that 
the direct tendency of the GospH-doctrine is, to 
make their negroes the better servants, in propor¬ 
tion as they become better Christians. 

In setting this scheme for the better instruc¬ 
tion of the Negroes on foot in my parish, 5 con¬ 
sulted nothing but conscience; had no other view 
than the discharge of that duty I so solemnly took 
upon roe at my being admitted into holy orders. 
—May God, of his infinite Mercy, enable me, by 
the assistance of his holy spirit, to perform it a* 
H 



86 


I ought to do, for yours and my o.vn joint benefit. 
May this grain of mustard.seed take deep root, 
and spread its branches far and wide :—May all 
pious undertakings for propagating the gospel of 
Christ, and promoting Christian knowledge at 
home and abroad, prosper under the hands of the 
labourers :—And may you, and I, my dear pa - 
rishioners, in our several stations, so demean our¬ 
selves in the midst of a corrupt world, so strive 
to exalt the kingdom of God upon earth, and to 
promote his service with our utmost power and 
influence; that after a truly Christian life spent 
here, we may meet all together in his paradise, 
there to wait for that joyful resurrection, which 
shall complete the happiness of all his saints, 
and admit-them tathe full enjoyment of that glo¬ 
rious, unspeal^ble bliss, which he hath prepared 
for them from the foundation of the world, through 
Jesus Christ our Lo-rd. Amen. 

This, my dear , well-beloved parishioners , is the 
daily prayer of 

Your faithful pastor, 

and most affectionate friend 


and servant. 



SERMON I 


Ephes. VI. 8. 


Knowing , that whatsoever good thing any man 
doeth , the same shall he receive of the Lord, 
whether he be bond or free. 


When I Consider the station in which the di¬ 
vine Providence hath been pleased to place me, 
and to how weighty an office and charge I am 
ealled as Minister of this Parish—that I am ap¬ 
pointed a Messenger , Watchman , and Steward of 
the great Lord of heaven and earth, to teach, 
and to premonisli, to feed and provide for the 
Lord’s family ;—to seek for Christ's Sheep 
that are dispersed abroad, and “for his children 
that are in the midst of this wicked w orld, that 
they may be saved through Christ for ever :— 
When I call to mind how great a treasure is com- 
raiWed to my charge, even those sheep which 
Christ bought wilh his death, and for whom he 
shed his most precious blood ;—and that I am to 
watch * for their souls as one that must g ive ac- 
c@mh#, 1 am struck with an awful dread, and my 
heart trembles within me, lest any one of these 
precious souls, for which our Saviour died, should 
be lost through my carelesness ;—knowing, that 
* Heb. xiii. 7. 



88 


if the Church of Christ, or any, the least, or 
poorest member thereof, should take any hurt or 
hindrance by reason of fny negligence, how great 
a crime I should have to answer for at the judg- 
ment.seat of Almighty God, —and how horrible 
a punishment would fall upon my guilty head, 
when not only my own sins, which are many, but 
also the blood of those unhappy souls, which 
perished through my fault, should be required at 
my hands. 

These considerations, my dear Christian bre¬ 
thren, have long employed my serious thoughts, & 
put ms upon various methods of performing this 
great and important duty, which I owe to the 
poorest slave, as well as the richest and most 
powerful among my parishioners-—And ind.ed, 
in this province, the clergy are under a particular 
temporal tie, as we are supported by a poll tax , 
in which every slaye, above sixteen years of age, 
is rated as high, and pays as much as the master 
he or she belongs to, and, consequently, have an 
equal right to instruction with their owners.— 
But though the eommon duties of Christianity, as 
godliness, righteousness, and temperance, do be. 
long to them, as much as to those of a higher 
rank ;—and though these, with their several 
branches, are explained every Lord’s day at 
church, whither they may, with their masters 
leave, resort for instruction ; yet there are other 
duties, peculiar to their state of life, which need 
a particular explanation.—Besides, their ignor¬ 
ance of the first principles of religion is generally 
such, that discourses, suited to those who are but 
indifferently acquainted with the grounds of 
Christianity, and kuow but a little of the holy 
scriptures, are no way suited to their capacities 
and understandings And most of them, from 



89 


their want of skill in o-ur tongue, .are not able to 
reap such instruction from what they hear, as they 
would from discourses framed on purpose ; where¬ 
in the language is lowered as near as possible to 
their own level, and the Christian doetrme stoops, 
as it were, to meet them. —This I have at¬ 
tempted in exhortations , as opportunity offered ; 
at their funerals (several of which I have attend¬ 
ed)—and to such small congregations as their 
marriages have brought together, as well as at 
my own house, on Sunday, and other evenings, 
when those in the neighbourhood come in.—But 
these occasional instructions can reach but to a 
very few ; and much the greatest number, either 
from their distance, which keeps them most Sun¬ 
days from church, or their understanding but little 
of what is said or done when they some there, are 
deprived of a great part ef the benefit they might 
otherwise receive.—These hindrances might, in¬ 
deed, be in a great measure removed, if their 
masters and mistresses would but take a little 
pains with them at homej by reading, or causing 
some easy portions of the holy scriptures, particu¬ 
larly the gospels, to be read to them iD an even¬ 
ing, together with such plain, shore tracts, upon 
the principles of Christianity, as are easily pro¬ 
cured, and of which, numbers have been distribut¬ 
ed in the parish since my coming into it.—Some 
few heads of families do, from a principle of con¬ 
science, take pious eare in these matters „• and, it 
is to be hoped, that by the blessing of God, their 
number will increase .-—But till that is the case, 
ether methods must be taken, and particular days 
be now and then appointed for the instruction of 
these poor people, as this hath been la 

which, may Almighty God, of his great mercy , 
assist me, his poor unworthy servant, in the 
b2 



90 


faithful performance of my part; anil open their 
hearts and minds, that they may gladly receive, 
and truly understand, ihe things which belong to 
their peace, through our Lord and Savionr 
Jesus Christ. Amen. 

And now, my dear Black brethren and sisters, 
1 beg that you will listen seriously to what 1 shall 

say--You all know what love and affection 1 

have for you, and I do believe that most of you 
hate the like love for me, as you have always 
lound me ready to serve you, when you wanted 
my help.—I doubt not therefore, that you will 
readily hearken to the good advice I shall now 
give you, (as you know me to be your friend and 
wellwisher) and hope you will remember it here¬ 
after, and think upon it at home, and talk of it to 
your fellow-servants that are not here, that they 
may receive advantage by it, as well as you, that 
hear if from ray own mouth. I Here masters may 
begin to read to their servants .3 

I have choson a text of scripture, which I 
eould wish you all had by heart, and would ail 
remember j—because it shews you what a gi'eat 
friend you may have in heaven, if yeu will but 
take any pains to gain his favour.—For St. 
Paul, who wrote by the direction of the holy spi¬ 
rit of God, assures you, that whatsoever good 
thing a man or womau doth, they shall receive the 
same ; that is, shall be rewarded for it by the Lord 
whether they be bond or free .—And this cannot 
but give you great comfort to know, and be 
assured, that whatever good thing you do though 
you be slaves, bound to serve masters and mistres¬ 
ses here upon earth, for the sake of a bare main¬ 
tenance;—yet, while you are doicg what m right 
and good, you are at the same time working for 
a Just master in heaven, who will pay you good 



91 


wages for it, and will make no difference between 
you, and the richest freeman upon the faee of 
the earth.—For God is no respecter of persons. 
—Ho values no man for his riches and power, 
neither does he despise or overlook any onv for 
his rags and poverty.—He lores none but those 
that are good, and hates none but those that are 
bad.—And our Lord and saviour Jesus Christ 
hath given us an account, from his own mouth, of 
a certain great man, who had riches and plea¬ 
sures at will, while he lived in this world, that 
was thrown into hell at his death, because he 
was not good :—While a poor despised beggar, 
all over-run with sores and filth, who died for 
want at this great man’s gate, was carried by an¬ 
gels info heaven, because he had been a good 
man, and had served God, his heavenly master, 
co far as he had knowledge and opportunity. 

That you may easier understand, and better 
•arry away in your memory what you shall hear, 
I shall endeavour, by God’s help, to lay before 
you, in the plainest words, 

I. Why you ought to serve God. 

II. What service, or what good things Go» 
espeets from you. 

III. What kind of reward you may expect to 
receive front him. 

I. And the first reason why you ought to serve 
God, is,— because that GOD made you ;— 
and he made you, and all men, to serve him.— 
You know that when you were born, you did not 
come into the world by any power or help of your 
own:—Nay, you were so far from knowing any 
thing about it, or how you came here;—whether 
you were found in the woods, or grew out of the 
ground,—that it was some years before you could 
help yourselves, or had so much sense as to know 



<J2 


your right hand from your left. * —It was Al¬ 
mighty God, therefore, who made you, aud all 
the world, that sent you here, as he had sent your 
fathers aud mothers, your masters and mistresses 
before you, to take care of you, aud provide for 
yotij while you could t&ke uo cure of> or help 9 or 
provide for yourselves.—And can you think that 
Almighty God, who is so wise and good himself, 
would send you into the world for ftoy bud purpo- 
ges ?— 1 Can you be so silly as to faney, that he, 
who made every thing so good and useful in its 
kind, sent you here to be idle, to be wicked, or 
to make a had use of any thing he hath made ?— 
Jfo, my brethren, the most ignorant among you 
has more sense than to think any such thing:— 
And there is none of you but knows that you 
ought to be good j—and whosoever is good, let 
him be ever so poor and mean, is serving God.— 
For this whole world is but one large family, of 
which Almighty God is the head and master:— 
He takes care of all, by causing the sun to shine , 
the rains to fall, the ivaters to spring, the winds 
to blow, the grass , the trees, and the herbs to 
spring , and the com, the plants, and the fruits to 
come in their due season ; thus providing food and 
shelter for all living creatures.—And to mankind 
in particular, he hath given reason and knowledge 
to teach them how to make use of, and turn all 
these things to their own comfort and support; 
giving more or less of them to every one, accord¬ 
ing as he thinks fit, and as he knows td be best 
for them-—And this general provision which 
God makes of all things, and this particular dis¬ 
posal of them, in giving more to some, and less lo 
others,—together with his own secret ways ot 

bringing it about, is what we call, hi* Divini 
Providence. 



93 


Now, for carrying on these great and wonder- 
full ends, God hath appoioted several offices and 
degrees in his family, as they are dispersed and 
scattered all over the face of the earth.—Some he 
hath made kings and rulers, for giving laws, and 
keeping the rest in order:—Some he hath made 
masters and mistresses, for taking care of their 
children, and others that belong to them:—Some 
he hath made merchants and seafaring men for 
supplying distant countries with what they want 
from other places :—Some be hath made trades¬ 
men and husbandmen , planters and labouring-men 
to wmrk for their own living, and help to supply 
others with the produce of their trades and crops: 
•—Some he hath made servants and slaves, to as¬ 
sist and work for the masters and mistresses that 
provide for them ; and others he hath made minis¬ 
ters and teachers, to instruct the rest, to shew 
them what they ought to do, and put them in 
mind of their several duties.—And as Almighty 
God hath sent each of us into the world for some 
or other of these purposes 5 —so, from the king, 
who is his head servant in a country, to the 
poorest slave, we are all obliged to do the busi¬ 
ness he hath set us about, in that state of life to 

which he hath been pleased to call us.-And 

while you, whom he hath made slaves, are ho¬ 
nestly and quietly doing your business, and living 
as poor Christians ought to do, you are serving 
God, in your low station, as much as the greatest 
prince alive, and will be as much taken notice of, 
and have as much favour shewn you at the last 
day. 

2. A second reason why you ought to serve 
God, is— Because you have souls to be 

saved. -If you have nothing in this world but 

hard labour, with your coarse food and clothing, 
you have a place provided for you in heaven, 



94 


when you die, and go into the next world, if you 
will but be at the pains of seeking for it while 

you stay here.-And there is no other way of 

getting to heaven, but by serving God upon earth. 

-Besides, when people die, we know but of 

two places they have to go to, and that is, heaven 
or hell :—so that whoever misses the one, must 
go to the other.—Now heaven is a place of great 
happiness, which God hath prepared for all that 
are good, where they shall enjoy rest from their 
labours, and a blessedness which will never have 
an end :—And hell is a plae® of great torment 
and misery, where all wicked people will be shut 
up with the devil, and other evil spirits, and be 
punished for ever, because they will not serve 
God in this world.—It was to save you, and nil 
men, from that dreadful punishment, that our 
blessed Lord Jesus Christ came down from 
heaven,—-was made a man like us, and suffered a 
most shameful and bitter death, his hands and 
feet being riveted with great nails to a cross 
piece of timber, and his side pierced through with 
a spear, as he hung upon it in all that pain ahd 
agony.—And if he so loved our souls, that he 
gave himself up to so cruel a death to redeem 
them from hell, ought not we to have as much re¬ 
gard for ourselves as he had, and take some pains 

to save our own souls ?-Believe me, rvy 

Hack brethren and sisters, there was not a 
single drop of his precious blood spilled, in which 
the poorest and meanest of you hath not as great 
a share, as the richest and most powerful person 

upon the face of the earth.-And think, O 

think, what a sad thing it must be, to lose any soul 
which cost Almighty God so dear as the life et* 
his own well beloved son !—But you must always 
remember, that though our saviour died for the 



95 


sins ol ail men, yet nose shall have the benefit of 
what he did for us, but such as will serve Gov :— 
For he made that the condition of our salvation, 
through him, that we should love and fear God, 
and keep his commandments. —If, therefore, we 
would have our souls saved by Christ, if we would 
escape hell, aqd obtain heaven, we must set about 
doing what he requires of us, and that is, to serve 
Gov. —Your own poor circumstances in this life 
ought to put you particularly upon this, and tak¬ 
ing care of your souls :—For you cannot have the 
pleasures anil enjoyments of this life, like rich 
free people, who have estates, and money to lay 
out as they think fit.—If others will run the haz¬ 
ard of their souls, they have a chance of getting 
wealth and power,—of heaping up riches, and 
enjoying all the ease, luxury, and pleasure, their 
hearts should long after But you can have 
none of these things. So that if you sell your 
souls for the sake of w'hat poor matters you can 
get in this world, you have made a very foolish 
bargain indeed. Almighty God hath been pleas¬ 
ed to make you slaves here, and to give you no¬ 
thing but labour and poverty in this world, which 
you are obliged to submit to, as it is his will it 
should be so. And think within yourselves what 
a terrible thing it would be, after all your labours 
and sufferings in this life, to be turned into hell 
in the next life and after wearing out your 
bodies in service here, to go into a far W'orse 
slavery when this is over, and your poor souls b© 
delivered over iBto the possession of the devil, to 
become his slaves for ever in hell, without any 
hope of ever getting free from it,-If, there¬ 

fore, you would be God’s Free-men in heaven, 
you must strive to be good, and serve him here on 
earth. 



96 


Your bodies, you kuow, are not your own; they 
are at the disposal of those you belong to But 
your precious souls are still your own, which no¬ 
thing can take from you if it be not your own 
fault. Consider well then, that if you lose your 
souls by leading idle, wicked lives here, you have 
got nothing by it in this world, and you have lost 
your all in the next.—For your idleness and 
wickedness is generally found out, and your 
bodies suffer for it here, and, what is far worse, 
if you do not repent and amend, your unhappy 
goals will suffer for it hereafter,—And our bless¬ 
ed saviour, who well knew the value of a soul, 
aud paid so dear for putting them in the way- 
leading to heaven, hath assured us in his holy 
word, that if a man was to gain the whole world 
hy it, it could not make him, amends for the loss of 
his soul. You see then, how necessary it is for you 
to be good,fk serve God , since that is the only way 
by which your souls can be saved, the only means 
by which you can secure the favour and friend¬ 
ship of Almighty Gob, who, upon that condition, 
will make you great amends in the next world,- 
for whatever you want, and whatever you suffer 
in this for his sake. 

II. What service, or what good things, GOD 
expects from you. 

And here, you must not thiuk that you can be 
of any advantage or benefit to Almighty God by 
serving him.-He, that hath millions of glori¬ 

ous and powerful angels waiting continually 
round his throne in heaveu, and ready every mo¬ 
ment to perform his commands, cannot want, or 
stand in need of any help or service , from the 
hands of such poor mean creatures as we are.— 
But when God made us, he intended that we 
should all be happy with him in heaveu, when 



97 


we leave ibis world, if we would live in such a 
manner here , as to be fit company for his blessed 

saints and angels hereafter. -For he delights 

in the happiness of oil his creatures, and his 
holy spirit is grieved when they, by their wicked¬ 
ness, make themselves miserable.-To this 

great end, he hath given us rules to walk by ;— 
which, if we follow, will prepare us for that 
happy state he hath provided for us in the next 
]ife.— _And whosoever observes these rules, and 
ordereth his behaviour aecord-ing to their direc¬ 
tions. is said to serve GOD j though, in reality, 
he is then serving himself in the highest degree. 

Now these rules of behaviour relate to three 
things ; namely, how we ought to behave to¬ 
wards GOD ,— towards mankind ,—and towards 
ourselves ;—and these I shall endeavour to ex¬ 
plain to you under the following heads : 

1. Your duty or behaviour towards God. 

2. Your duty or behaviour towards your masters 
and mistresses. 

3. Your duty or behaviour towards your fellow 
servants, and others. 

4 . Your duty towards yourselves. 

1. And in the first place; your duty towards 
God is to look upon him as your great and chief 
master, to whom you are accountable for all your 
behaviour, either in private or publick ;—both 
towards himself, and to ail mankind.—You are 
to remember, that you cau do uolhing so secretly 
but he will know it, and that no place is so dark 
and private, but his all piercing eye can see what 
you are doing in it :— For the darkness and the 

light are both alike to him. -You are farther to 

consider, that his eyes are continually upon you, 
and that it is impossible for you to conceal your¬ 
self a single moment out of his sightThat he 



m 


is pleased when he sees you doing what is right, 
and angry with you when he sees you doing any 

thing that is bad.-And this will surely be a 

mighty cheek upon you, when you are inclined 
to do any bad thing, to think that Almighty God 
is that very moment looking upon you, and taking 
an account of your behaviour.—So that if it 
should be done so secretly and artfully as never 
to be known in this world, yet your heavenly 
master sees it, and knows it, aud will not fail to 
punish you for it in the next world, for doing 
what he hath forbidden you to do.-’This con¬ 

sideration will also be of great comfort and en¬ 
couragement to you, in doing what is right and 
good ;—for if no body else was to take notice of 

it, you are sure that he will:-And if you 

meet with no recompence for it here, you know 
that Almighty God, who is the best of masters, 

will reward you for it hereafter.-For you are 

assured in the (ext, that whatsoever good thing 
any man doth, the same shall he receive of the 
Lord, whether he be bond or free. 

2 Another duty you owe to God Almighty, is,-— 
lo love him with all your heart, with fill your mind , 
with all your soul, and with all your strength .— 
In short, you most love God above all things. 

And indeed, if you do but seriously think what 
God hath done, is every day doing, and will do 
for you hereafter, if it be,not your own fault, 
yon cannot chuse but love him beyond the whole 
world. ——— Hath not God made you?—Hath lie 
not given you all the comforts you have enjoyed 
iu life ?—Hath he not given you, along with the 
rest of mankind, sense and reason beyond all 
other sorts of earthly creatures?—Hath he not 
preserved aud supported you to this very hour ? 
—And do not your very lives this moment depend 



99 


upon Lis goodness and mercy ?-These are 

great obligations to love and thankfulness ;—hut 
what he hath done for your souls is of far greater 
value.—Hath he not given you souls to he saved ? 
.—Hath he not brought you out of a land of dark¬ 
ness and ignoraace, where your forefathers knew 
nothing ofhim, to a country where you may come 
to the knowledge of the only true God, and learn 
a sure way to heaven ?—Hath he not shewn such 
wonderful love and kindness for your souls, as to 
send his only Son , out Saviour Jesus Ghrist, to 
suffer death for your sake*, and to leave rules 
and directions behind him, which, if you follow, 
will bring you to everlastiug happiness ?—And 
hath he not so ordered it in liis Providence, that 
you should be taught those rules this holy day of 
his own appointing, and at other times ?—And 
will he not bestow' heaven itself upon you, if you 
will make good use of the opportunities he hath 
given you of learning his laws, and living ac¬ 
cordingly ? You see that Almighty God hath 
thought nothing too good for you, and surely you 
cannot think any love too great for him.—Take 
good heed therefore, that ycu do not let idleness 
and vanity, lust and sin, run away with those 

hearts and affections w hicb you ought to bestow 

entirely upon so kind and good a God. -For 

while you desire to do any thing which is not law¬ 
ful and good, you .love that thing, w hatever it is, 
better than you love God : and therelore he will 
not love vou :—and (he loss of God s love is th# 
dreadmlest toss that can happen to you. 

3, Auother duty you owe to God, is fear.— 
Now there are two sorts of fear, theory proceed¬ 
ing from love, and the other from terror.—If we 
siucerely love any one, we are afraid of doing any 
thing that will make him uneasy And if we 



100 


love God sineerely, we shall he afraid of doing 
any ill thing, because we know that his holy spi¬ 
rit is grieved at our wickedness. But if our love 
to God be not strong enough to make us aft aid 
of grieving his holy spirit , the dread of his terri¬ 
ble judgments will surely keep us in awe. When 
any of you have done something that deserves 
correction, and you find that your masters have 
come to the knowledge of it, does not the fear of 
a whipping make you tremble? Do not your 
hearts fail you, and the terror of the lash make 
you wish you never had done it ? And while 
that/ear, and the thoughts of correction hang o- 
ver you, does it not keep you from doing what 
inay bring upon you such severe punishments ?—- 
Alas, my brethren, all this is a mere trifle ! If 
men for your faults should he provoked to lash 
you immoderately; if your correction should be 
so severe as that you died under it, there would 
be an end of that suffering; aBd you could feel no 
more, if they were to cut your body into pieces, 
or throw it into the &re. But if you lead wick¬ 
ed lives, and provoke God to anger, he can not 
only, if he thinks proper, strike you dead upon 
the spot, or eause you to die of some lingering, 
painful distemper, but can also plunge your souls 
into hell-fire, there to remain in pain and torment 
for ever. Let this thought be strongly fixed in 
your hearts ;—and when sinful desires arise in 
your mindg, and evil inclinations begin to get the 
better, then remember that the great God is look¬ 
ing at you, and say within yourselves, as Joseph 
said, when he was tempted to sin by his wicked 
mistress,— How canl do this great wickedness and 
sin against God ? Now Joseph* like you, was a 
slave io a s*range land, and was sold by his wick¬ 
ed brethren, as many of you, or your forefathers. 



101 


have been sold to masters of ships, by your pa«. 
rents or relations his temptation was very 
„ rtfa t;——he was a young man and a slave $ 
but his fear of God was such, that lie rather 
ehose to suffer the consequences of his mis¬ 
tress’s rage, & to go to prison, where he remained 
several years, Ilian to displease God by commit- 
ting sin. Our blessed Saviour, speaking thlS 
holy fear and dread of offending Almighty God, 
aaith—“ Fear not them which kill the body, but 
are not able to kill the soul : but rather feat hun, 
which is able to destroy both body & soul in hell. 

4. Another duty you owe to Almighty God, is 
worship— and this is of two sorts, —public and 
private. Public worship is lhat devotion we pay 
to God at church on Sundays and other Holydays, 
—and private worship, is that duty of prayer and 
thanksgiving which we offer up to Qod at home. 

Private prayer is a duty which Gob expect* 
from vou, as much as from people of a higher 
rank.* It were iudeed much to be wished, that we 
had more praying famAUes among us, where ser¬ 
vants would have an opportunity of praying regu¬ 
larly every day But there are lew of you but 
eaosay the Lori’s prayer ; and that, said over 
devoutly, morniug and evening upon your knees, 
would bring down a blessing upon you and the 
family you belong to.—If you were to consider 
what prayer is,---that it i* speaking to Almigh y 
God, and asking freely from him a supply of eve¬ 
ry thing that is needful for you, you surely fl’ould 
be very fond of praying. And do not say that 
vou want words ;-For if you want any favour 
from your masters or mistresses, you can find 
words plain enough to ask it from them. Now 
Almighty God invites you to come to him, and 
tells you, that you need but e#k of hun, and you 
12 



102 


shall have, seek and you shall find, knock and it 
shall be opened unto you. If, therefore, you will 
not ask a blessing from him in prayer, you cannot 
expect to have it;—if you will not seek for his 
favour, you cannot expect to find it,—and if 
you will not take the trouble of knocking at the 
gate of heaven, you cannot hope to have it opened 
to let you in. It is not long prayers, nor a set of 
fine words, that God requires. But if the heart 
be desirous of obtaining any request, the tongue 
will find out words to express it in;—and God, 
who looks upon the heart more than the tongue, 
will grant whatever you ask of him, if it be for 
your good. ■■—It is no matter how short your 
prayer is, it your heart go along with it:—And 
any of you have sense enough to pray in this 
manner_ 

“ Lord have mercy upon me, I am a great sin- 
“ ner : I have done such a thing, whieh I ought 
“ not to have done, and I am sorry for it. Spare 
<( me, good Lord, pardon me this once, for the 
li sake of my Saviour Jesus Christ, and, by 
“ the blessing of God, I will do so no more.” 

“ Lord, give me grace, and make me a good 
“ man !” 

K Lord, bless my master and mistress, and pros-. 
“ per the house I live in !*’ 

“ God bless me, and keep me from sin and dan- 
“ ger!” 

“ Lord make me truly thankful for thy great 
cc goodness to me !” 

“ Lord, make me your servant while I live, 
“ that when I die, I may remain in your house 
t( for ever 1” 

You can never want time for prayers of this 
sort:—You can think of your souls, and pray thus 
eiiher in the house or the field whether you are up 



103 


or in bed, or walking or working ; at the plough, 
the axe, the hoe, or the spade. And God is 
always ready to hear you. But remember this,— 
that whenever you pray to God for grace, you 
must strive to be what you pray for.---If you de¬ 
sire of God to make you good, or sober, or ho¬ 
nest, or diligent, you must first of all strive to be 
that good, that sober, that honest,t hat diligent ser¬ 
vant you desire to be, and then God will help 
you with his grace in making you so. 

5. Another duty owe owe to God is reverence 
and honour. But many of you are so far from 
shewing any honour or respect to God Almigh- 
ly, that you will curse and swear, and blaspheme 
his name upon every little fit of passion, at any 
silly thing that crosses your humour,---and some¬ 
times out of meer wantonness, when nothing dis¬ 
turbs you at all. Take eare, my brethren, it is 
very dangerous sporting w'ilh the great and fear¬ 
ful name of the Lord our God: And he hath 
threatened that he wtllnothold that person guiltless 
that taketh his name in vain ; —that is, that who¬ 
soever makes an irreverent use of his holy name 
by vain oaths, and cursing and * wearing , shall cer¬ 
tainly be punished for it, either in this world, or 
in the w'orld to come. 

6- Another duty you owe to Almighty God, is 
truth . For God is a God of truth, and hates all 
lies and liars. The holy scriptures are full of texts 
to this purpose, of which, 1 shall repeat a few, to 
shew you what a sad thing it is to tell lies. Ia 
one place we are told by king Solomon, that lying 
lips are an abomination to the Lord. Our saviour 
himself tells us in another place, that the devil 
is a liar, and the father of it. And St. John tells 
us, that all liars shall have their part in the lake 
th*t bunuth ivith Jin and brimestone ; that is in 



104 


hell. Now many of you think there is little 
harm in a lie ;—but you see what a sad sad mis¬ 
take it is.-For you see, by what has been said, 

that if you have a mind to make yourselves hate¬ 
ful aud abominable to God,— if you have a mind 
to become the devil’s own children,—if you want 
to plunge yourselves headlong into hell, aud wal¬ 
low to all eternity in fire and brimestone, yon 
need but get an habit of lying, and it will as sure¬ 
ly destroy your souls, as murder, fornication, 
adultery, or any other sin. 

II. Having thus shewn you the chief duties you 
owe to your great master in heaven, I now come 
to lay before you the duties you owe to your mas¬ 
ters and viistresses here upon earth. 

And for this, you have one general rule that 
you ought always to carry in your minds;—and 
that is,— to do all service for them , as if you did 

it for God himself. -Poor creatures 1 you little 

consider, when you are idle and Beglectful of 
your master's business,—when you steal and 
waste, and hurt any of their substauee,—when 
you are saucy and impudent, —when you are tell¬ 
ing them lies , and deceiving them,—or when you 
prove stubborn or sullen, and will not do the work 
you are set about without stripes and vexation ;— 
you do not consider, Isay, that what faults you 
are guilty of towards your masters and mistresses 
are faults done against God himself, who hath 
set your masters and mistresses over you, in his 
own stead, and expects that you will do for them, 

just as you would do for him.-And pray, do 

not think that I want to deceiye you, when I tell 
you, that your masters and mistresses are God’s 
overseers, —and that if you are faulty towards 
them, God himself will punish you severely for 
it in the uexj. world, unless you repent of ft, and 



105 


strive to make amefads, by your faithfulness and 
diligence , for the time to come for God him¬ 
self hath declared the same. And you havej at 
the same time this comfort, that if any of your 
owners should prove wicked overseers , and use 
you, who are his under servants here, as they 
ought not to do ;—though you must submit to it, 
aud can have no remedy in this world, yet, when 
God calls you and them together face to face be¬ 
fore him in the next world, and examines into 
these matters, he will do you strict justice, and 
punish those that have been bad stewards and 
overseers over you with the greater severity, as 
they had more of this world entrusted to their 
care :—and that whatever you have suffered un¬ 
justly here, God will make you amends for it in 
heaven. I will now read over to you the rules 
which God hath given you, in his own words, 
that you may see what 1 say is truth. “ Ser¬ 
vants, be obedient to them that are your masters 
according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, 
iu singleness of your heart, as unto Christ.*—Not 
with eye-service, as men-pleasers, but as the ser¬ 
vants of Christ, doing the will of God from the 
heart. With good will doing service, as to the 
Lord and not to men.—Knowing,that whatsoever 
good thing any man doeth, the same shall he re¬ 
ceive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free; 

-And ye masters, do the same things unto 

them, forbearing (or moderating) threatening ; 
knowing that your master also is in heaven • nei¬ 
ther is there respect of persons with him.’* 

Now, from this great general rule, namely, that 
you are to do all sei vice for your masters and 
mistresses, as if you did it for Gob himself , there 
arise several other rules of duty towards your 
masters and mistresses , which 1 shall endeavour 
to lay iu order before you. 



I] And in the first place, you are to be obedient 
uni subject to your masters in all things . For the 
rules which God hath left us in the scriptures are 
these— u *Servants, obey in all things your 
masters according to the flesh, not with eye-ser- 
viee as raen-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, 
fearing God : —And whatsoever ye do, do it hear¬ 
tily, as to the Lord, and not unto men ; knowing, 
that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of 
the inheritance, for ye serve the Lard Christ.— 
But he that doeth wrong shall receive for the 
wrong he hath done ; and thero is no respect of 
persons,—§ Servants, be subject to your masters, 
with all fear, not only to the good and gentle, but 
also to the froward.”— And Christian ministers 
are commanded to || exhort servants to be obedient 
unto their own masters, and to please them well in 
all things, not answering again, or murmuring, or 
gainsaying. - You see how strictly God re¬ 

quires this of you, that whatever your masters 
and’mistresses order you to do, you must set about 
it immediately, and faithfully perform it, with¬ 
out any disputing or grumbling,—and take ears 
to please them well in all things. — —And, for 
your encouragement, he tells you, that he will 
reward you for it in heaven, because, while you 
are honestly and faithfully doing your master's 
business here, you are serving your Lord and 
master in heaven. You see also, that you are 
not to take any exceptions to the behaviour of 
your masters and mistresses, and that you are to 
be subject and obedient, not only to such as are 
goofy, and gentle, and mild towards you, but also 
to such as may be froward , peevish , and hard. — 
For you are not at liberty to chuseyour own mas¬ 
ters,*but into whatever hands God hath been 
* CoUii, 22,23, 24, 25. § 1 Pet. ii: 18. |] Tit, ii, 9. 



107 


pleased (o put you, you mast do your doty, and 
God will reward you for it. Aad if they neglect 
to do theirs, God will punish them for it For 
there is no respect of persons with him. There is 
only one case, in which yon may refuse obedience 
to your owners,—.and that is, if they should com¬ 
mand you to do any sinful thing.—Is Joseph 
would not hearken to his mistress, when* she 
templed him to sin with her.- —So that if any 
master could he so wicked as to command you to 
steal , to murder, to set a neighbour's house on fire, 
to do harm to any hodys goods , or cattle , or to get 
drunk, or to curse and swear, or to work on sun- 
days , (unless it should be in a ease of great neces¬ 
sity)—or to do any thing that God hath forbidden, 
there it is your duty to refuse them;—because 
God is your head master, aud you must not do a 
thing which you know is contrary to his will.— 
But in every thing else, you must obey your 
owners j and God requires it of you. 

2. You are wot to be eye-servants. —Now eyg- 
servants are such as will work hard, and seem 
mighty diligent, while they think that any body 
is taking notice of them, but when their masters 
and mistresses backs are turned, they are idle, 
and neglect their business. 

—I am afraid that there are a great many such 
eye servants among you,—and that you do not 
consider how great a sin it is to be so, and how 
severely God will punish you for it.—You may 
easily deceive your owuers, and make them have 
an opinion of you that you do not deserve, and 
get the praise of men by it. But remember, that 
you cannot deceive Almighty God, who sees your 
Avickedness and deceit, and will punish you ac¬ 
cordingly. For the rule is, that you must obey 



108 


your masters in all things, & do the work they set 
you about with fear and trembling, in singleness of 
heart, as unto Christ, not with eye-service, as men 
pleasers, but as the servants of Christ, doing the 
will of God from the heart: With good will do¬ 
ing service, as to the Lord, and not at to men . — 
If then, you would but think, and say within your¬ 
selves,—“ My master hath set me about this 
work, and bis back is turned, so that I may loiter 
and idle if I please, for he does not see me.— 
But there is my great master in heaven, whose 
overseer my other master is—and his eyes are al¬ 
ways upon me, and taking notice of me, and I 
cannot get any where out of his sight, nor be idle 
without his knowing it, aud what will become of 
me if 1 loose his good will, and make him angry 
with me.”—If, I say, you would once get the way 
of thinking and saying thus, upon all occasions, 
you then would do what God commands you, and 
serve your masters with singleness of heart,— 
that is, with honesty and sincerity j you would do 
the work you are set about with fear and tremb¬ 
ling, not for fear of your masters and mistresses 
upou earth (for you may easily cheat them, and 
make them believe you are doing their business 
when you do not)—but with fear and trembling , 
lest God, your heavenly master, whom you can¬ 
not deceive, should call you to acecount,and pun¬ 
ish you in the next world, for your deceitfulnes, 
and eye-service in this. 

3. You are to be faithful and honest to your 
masters and mistresses—not purloining* (or wast¬ 
ing their goods or substance) but shewing all good 
fidelity in all things. 

If you were to rob or steal from others, you 
kuow that it would be a very bad thing and l»ow 
♦ Tit ii. 10 



109 


severely the law would punish you for it.—But if 
your master is robbed of what belongs to him by 
your wastefulness or negligence, do not you think 
that it is wicked ?—For pray what is the differ¬ 
ence to me, when my substance is gone, whether 
a thief took it away from me, or whether l am 
robbed of it by my servants negligence ?—The 
loss is the same, and they will hare it to answer 
for..- — .How then can many of you be so careless 
about your master’s business ?—How can you be 
so unfaithful and wicked, as to see tlieir substance 
perish and be lost, when a little of your timely 
care w r ould prevent the loss r—-Is not this a very 
common case among you ?—And do not most 
masters complain, with great justice, that unless 
they happen to see into every thing themselves, 
their servants will take no care?—Nay, even 
when they are told of it, and ordered iodoit, they 

will still neglect, and let the goods perish ?- 

Do not your masters, under God, provide for 
you ?—And how shall they be able to do this, to 
feed and to clothe you, unless you take honest 
care of every thing that belongs to them ?—Re¬ 
member that God requires this of you, and if you 
are not afraid of suffering for it here, you cannot 
escape the vengeance of Almighty God, who will 
judge between you and your masters, and make 
you pay severely in the next world for ail the in¬ 
justice you do them here,- —And tho’ you could 
manage so cunningly as to escape the eyes and 
hands of man, yet'think w hat a dreadful thing it 
is to fall into the hands of the living Gon, who is 
able to cast both soul and body into hell. 

4. You are to serve your masters with cheerful¬ 
ness, reverence, and humility. —You are to do y«ur 
masters service with good will, doing it as the 
will of God, from the heart, without any sauci- 



IK) 


ness or answering again.—How many of yon do 
things quite otherwise, and, instead ef going about 
your work with a good will and a good heart, 
dispute , and grumble; give saucy answers, and be¬ 
have in a surly manner?—There is something so 
becoming and engaging in a modest, chearful* 
good-natured behaviour, that a little work done 
in that manner, seems better done, and gives far 
more satisfaction, than a great deal more that 
must be done with fretting, vexation, and the 
lash always held over you. It also gains the good 
will and love of those you belong to, and makes 
your own life pass with more ease and pleasure— 
Besides, you are to consider, that this grumbling 
and ill will does not affect your masters and mis¬ 
tresses only:—They have ways and meads in 
their hands of forcing yon to do your work, whe¬ 
ther you are willing or not—But your murmur - 
ing and grumbling is against God, who hath 
placed you in that service, who will punish you 
severely in the next world for despising his com¬ 
mands. 

Thus I have endeavoured to shew yon, why 
you ought to serve God, and what duty in parti¬ 
cular you owe to him 1 have also shesvn you, 
that while you are serving your masters and mis¬ 
tresses, or doing any thing that God hath com¬ 
manded, you are at the same time serving him ; 
and have endeavoured to shew you what duty or 
service joh owe to your owners, in obedience to 
God, and that in so plain a manner, as I hope 
the greatest part of you did well understand.— 
The other parts of your duty and the rewards 
which God hath promised to you (if you will ho¬ 
nestly set about doing it) I shall endeavour to 
lay before you at our next meeting here for that 
purpose.-—In the mean time, consider well what 



Ill 


hath been said.—Thiak upon it, and talk about 
it one with another, and strive to fix it on jour 
memories.—And may God of his infinite mercy- 
grant, that it may sink deep into your hearts, 
and, taking root there, may bring forth in you 
the fruit of good living, to the honour and praise 
of his holy name, the spreading abroad of his 
gospel, and the eternal salvation of your precious 
souls, through oar Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ, to whom, Jvith the father, and the holy 
spirit, be all honor and glory, world without 
cad.— Amen. 


SERMON II. 


Ephes. YI. 8. 

Knowing , that whatsoever good thing any man 
doeth , the same shall he receive of the Lord, 
whether he be bond or free. 

My well.beloved Black Brethren and Sisters, 

WHEN you w-ere last here, I endeavoured (o 
shew you,—That God made you and all the 
world,—and that he made you and all mankind 
to serve him ;—That it is he who places every 



man in the station or rank which he holds in the 
world, making soma kings, some masters and mis¬ 
tresses, some tradesmen and working people , and 
others servants and slaves. That every one of us 
is obliged to do the business he hath set us about, 
in that state or condition of life to which he hath 
bean pleased to call us -And that whoever is 
doing his business quietly and honestly in the 
world, and living as a Christian ought to do, is 
serving of God , though his condition be ever so 
loio and mean ; and will be as much taken notice 
of, and as highly favoured by God at the last day, 
as the greatest prince upon earth,—for God is no 
respecter of persons.— I also laid before you,— 
that you ought to serve God for your own sakes, 
because you have souls to be saved, and if you 
should lq£.e them, you are undone for ever:—That 
every one who dies, and goes into another world, 
must go either to heaven or hell ; and that thera 
is no iher way of escaping everlasting punishment 
in hell, or being eternally happy in heaven, but 
by serving God while he spares our life upon 
earth. 

I then went on to shew you, what duty you 
owe to God in particular,—that you ought to 
look upon him as your great and chief master, to 
whom you must one day answer for every thing 
you have done in this life :—That he is always 
looking upon you, and taking notice of your beha¬ 
viour, so that if you could deceive all the world, 
yon cannot deceive God :—That you ought to 
love God above all thiugs, or else he will not 
love you, which would be the most dreadful thing 
that could happen to you :—That if you lave God 
sincerely, you will be afraid of doing any thing 
that is bad, because his holy spirit is grieved to 
see men destroy their sauls by their wickedness;— 



113 


That if the love of God is not strong enough to 
keep you from doing what is bad, and vexing and 
offending him thereby, you- ought, at least, to 
dread his terrible judgments; for that he is able, 
not only to destroy your bodies, and strike you 
dead in a moment, but also to cast both body and 
soul into hell , which will certainly be the portion 
of all such, as provoke him to anger by leading 
wicked lives .-—That you ought to worship God 
both in publick and in private :—in publick , by- 
coming to church as often as you have leave and 
opportunity? and in private, by praying to him 
for every thing you want, and giving him thanks 
for all his goodness to you, which you may easily 
do, when you are walking, or working , in the 
house, or in the field: —That you ought to rever¬ 
ence and honour Almighty God, and keep from 
all cursing and swearing, or making any light, 
foolish, vain use of his great aud holy name :— 
And that you must keep from all lying, because 
God hates all such as tell lies, and will give them 
over to the devil^who is the father of all lies and 
liars. 

In the next place I endeavoured to shew you,how 
you ought to behave towards your masters and 
mistresses ; and to make it plain to you, that as 
God himself hath set them over you here in the 
nature of his stewards or overseers, he expects 
you will do every thing for them, as you do for 
himself:—That you must be obedient and sub* 
ject to them in all things, and do whatever they 
order you to do, unless it should be some wicked 
thing which you knew that God hath forbidden, 
in which case you are to refuse, but in no other:— 
That you must not he eye-servants, that is, such as 
will be very busy in their masters presence, but 
very idle when their backs are turned: For 

K2 



114 


jour head master, Almighty God, is looking on 
jou, and though you may escape being found out, 
or punished by your owners for it, yet you cannot 
deceive God, who will punish you severely in the 
next world for your deceitful dealing in this :— 
That you must be faithful and honest to your 
masters and mistresses, not wasting their sub¬ 
stance, or letting any thing, belonging to them, 
perish for want of your care;—because that is 
next to stealing—for I he master’s loss is the same 
as if he had been robbed of it:—And that you are 
to serve your owners with Cheerfulness , respect , 
and humility,— not grumbling, or giving any saucy 
answers, but doing your work with readiness , 
mildness, and good nature ; because your sauci¬ 
ness and grumbling is not so much against your 
owners, as it is against God himself, tYho hath 
placed you in that service, and expects you will 
do the business of it as he hath commanded you. 

111. I now come to shew you, as I promised in 
my last sermon,— what is the duty or behaviour 
you owe to your fellow servants and others. 

And you are to take notice, that the great rule 
which Almighty God hath given us in this case, 
is to love one anotheu.— I will read to you 
his own words, as we have them in the holy scrip¬ 
ture.—“ * A new commandment I give unto you, 
that ye Jove one another ; as I have loved you, 
that ye also love one another :—By this shall all 
men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have 
love one to another.—This f is my commandment, 
that ye love one another, as I have loved you.— 
§ Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.—1| Be 
kindly affectionate one to another, with brotherly 
love-—**Owe no man any thing, but to love one 

* John xiii. 34, 35. ftJohn xv. 12. § Lev. xix. 38. 

Matt, xxji, 3& |j liom.'xii. 10. * f Rom. xiii- 8. 



115 


another.—<-BytfLove serve one another: For ail 
the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this, thou 
shall love thy neighbour as thyself.”—You see 
then, how strongly God Almighty insists upon it, 
that all Christians do love one another, and 
makes it the great mark, by which his faithful 
servants may be known from others, who have no 
such rule made known to them. By this , saith 
our saviour, shall all men know that ye are my 
disciples, if ye have love one to another . And to 
shew us how heartily and sincerely he would 
have us to love one another, he commands us to 
love one another, even as he loved ms,. —to he kind¬ 
ly affectionate ane to another, with brotherly love . 
To love our neighbours , that is, all with whom 
we have any kind of dealings, even as we Jove 
ourselves . Now there are many reasons why we 
should all love one another, aud the chief reason 
is, w hat I told you of before, that we are all one 
large family, under Almighty God, our maker 
and great master, who therefore commands us all 
to love one another, as fellow servants and bro¬ 
thers ought to do. Rave\ we not all one father ? 
hath not one God created us ? saith one of God’s 
holy prophets, Aud if we mind this one great 
rule of loving one another, re shall do every 
thing which God requires of us towards all men, 
For, as the w'ord of God saith, all the laiv , that 
is, all the law relating to mens dealings with one 
another, is fulfilled in one word, even in this ,— 
thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 

To make this rule as plain as I can to you, do 
hni think within yourselves what you would do 
for any person you really had a love and affection 
for,— Would you not do them all the good, and 
shew them all the kindness you could ?—Would 
ff Gal. v. 13,14. f Mat. ii.-10. 



116 


you not be very sorry to give them any trouble 
or vexation ?—Would you not keep from doing 
them any sort of harm yourself, and hinder other 
people from doing them any wrong or hurt ?— 
And would not your love to them make you as 
careful of them, and as unwilling to hurt them, 
as if they were your nearest relations ?->—This 
consideration will lead you into a true notion of 
what is meant by those rules in the holy scrip¬ 
tures, where God Almighty commauds us to love 
one another ,—to be kindly affectionate one to an¬ 
other , with brotherly love ,—to love our neighbors 
as ourselves, and such. like.—And to make this 
great command still plainer, our blessed Saviour, 
Jesus Christ, hath left this other rnle to the 
same purpose,—* Ml things whatsoever ye would 
that men should do to you, do ye even so to them, 
—that is, do by all mankind Just as you would 
desire they should do by you, if you were in their 
place, and they in yours. 

Now, to suit this rule to your particular cir¬ 
cumstances Suppose you were masters and 
mistresses, and had servants under you,—would 
you not desire that your servants should do their 
business faithfully and honestly , as well when 
your back was turned, as while you were looking 
over them ?—-Would you not expect that they 
should take notice of what you said to them ?— 
That they should behave themselves with respect 
towards you and yours, and be as careful of 
every thing belonging to you as you would be 
yourselves ?—You are servants,—do therefore as 
you would wish to be done by, and you will both 
be good servants to your masters, and good ser¬ 
vants to God, who requires this pf you, and will 


* Matt. vii. 12. 



117 


reward you well for it, ifyuu do it for the sake of 
conscience in obedience to his command. 

Again—suppose that you were people of some 
substance, and had something of your own in the 
world,— would you not desire to keep what you 
had ?—And that no body should take it from you, 
without your own consent, or hurt any thing be¬ 
longing to you ?—If, then, you love your neighbor 
as yourself, or would do by others as you could 
wish they would do by you, you will learn to bo 
houest and just towards all mankind, as well as 
to your masters and mistresses, and not steal, or 
take away any thing from any one, without his 
knowledge or consent :—You will be as careful 
not to hurt any thing belongiug to a neighbour, 
or to do any harm to his goads, his cattle , or his 
plantation , or to sree it done by others, as you 
would be to hurt yourself, or any thing you had 
of your own And will behave yourselves to¬ 
wards all mankiud with the same honesty and 
good will, as you could wish they would do to 
you in the like case. 

Your fellow servants are more particularly to 
be looked upon as your brethren :—Your common 
station, as slaves, your complexion, and your 
marriages one among another in different fami¬ 
lies, make you nearer to each other than all the 
rest of the world, except your owners.—And, poor 
and ignorant as you are, you may do much good, 
and prevent much harm, by beliaviug one to- 
wards another as brothers and sisters ought to do, 
and as God requires of you.-—And, considering 
all thiugs, you must be miserable creatures in¬ 
deed, if you will not be loving and affectionate, 
kind aud honest among yourselves.—But for fear 
you should mistake my meaning, I will first de¬ 
scribe to you, what true love and affection is,— 



118 


and then endeavour to shew you iu particular, 
ho iv you ought to behave one towards another. 

That person is truly loving and affectionate to 
another, who is ready at all times to do any thing 
for him that is really for his good,—and to pre¬ 
vent any harm or disadvantage from happening to 
him.—Now, if you bear this sort of love towards 
one another, and do accordingly, you will indeed, 
as God hath commanded, be kindly affectionate 
quo to another , with brotherly love. 

Ifyou will but consider that a man is doing 
himself the greatest good, while he is doing what 
Almighty God is pleased with j and that no one 
ean do himself greater harm than by doing any 
thing that will provoke God to be angry with 
him, you cannot be at a loss how to shew the tru¬ 
ss! love and affection to any of your brethren and 
fellow-servants. Your poverty and low station 
in life, hinders you from giving much comfort or 
support to their bodies, any farther than, perhaps 
a little help in their labours, when you have no¬ 
thing to do yourselves, or by shewing good nature 
to them, or by a kind care and tenderness to¬ 
wards them in their sickness, when they are not 
able to take care of themselves, and want help 
from those that are about them :—but to their 
precious souls you may do great good, and by so 
doing, gain the greatest benefit to yourselves. 

Suppose any of you to have been wicked 
creatures, — idle, drunken , swearing , thievish , 
lewd people ;—and being at length overtaken by 
the hand of God, and laid down on a painful, 
sick bed, without any hopes of recovery, with all 
the terrors of conscience about you, and nothing 
before you but death, and the fearful apprehen¬ 
sions of being miserable for ever,—what a dread¬ 
ful state of mind must you then be in ! And 



*19 


what would you then give, that you had been 
blessed with a true friend in your former days, 
one that had so much real love for you, as to 
have warned you of your danger, and have hin¬ 
dered you, by his kind advice, from running sueh 
lengths of wickedness as you bad done ?—And 
would you not then think, that such a friend 
would have been of more value to you, than the 
whole world ?—You have it in yonr power to be 
such true friends and lovers one to another :— 
And though you can give but little bodily help, 
you can do what is far better ,—you can help each 
other on in the way towards heaven .—Yon can, 
nay, you ought to check one another, when you 
see any thing doing amiss :—You can encourage 
each other in doing what is right and good 
You can pray together, and you can pray for one 
another:—You can, on a Sunday evening, talk 
about the good advice you have heard in Church, 
and by teiliag it to such as could not be there, 
may do them much good, and, at the same time, 
by thus repeating these things, they will be the 
stronger fixed in your own memory, so as to be 
of lasting service to yourselves You can, by a 
good example, prevent a great deal of wickedness 
and indecency, in your meetings and conversa¬ 
tions one,»mong another : And where yoH find 
that your sober, friendly advice, will do no good 
with them, you may terrify your companions from 
doing bad things, by threatening to complain of 
them; and by such means as these you may 
help to save their souls, and get a blessing upon 
yourselves and families. But, Oh, my brethren ! 
I am grieved to say it, you are so far from doing 
this that I fear many of you rather encourage 
and help one another ou in wickedness, and go 
hand in hand towaids destruction, rather than 



120 

strive to assist one another in the way to hea¬ 
ven! 

There is one sort of love and charity you may, 
however perform to the wickedest of your ac¬ 
quaintances or fellow-servants ;---and that is, to 

pray for them. -God may, perhaps, hear your 

prayers in their hehalf, and touch their hearts, 
though you cannot:—And that would be a great 

blessing both to them and you.-But if they 

should, after all, continue so wicked as not to de¬ 
serve any mercy or grace from God, your prayers 
will not be lost, for God will place them to your 
own account, and you will have the reward for 
your kind and pious intentions towards yonr un¬ 
happy brother. 

Besides good advice , there is another great duty 
you owe to your brethren,—and that is, good ex¬ 
ample. -If they will not mind ivhat you say , 

they cannot help taking uotiee of what you do : 
—And, perhaps, the shame of seeing so great a 
difference between their own behaviour and yours, 
may put them upon striving to be like you,—For 
there is something so engaging in a regular t sober , 
modest, pious behaviour, that none but exceeding 
wicked people, or such as have laid aside all 
thoughts of goodness, that can see it without wish¬ 
ing to be like the person that has so many good 
qualities.—How happy are they that have exam¬ 
ples of this sort set before their eyes !—And how 
much more happy, if they would seriously, and 
in earnest, strive to follow stsch examples. 

Many of you are married, and have numbers 
of children.—You surely owe them good exam¬ 
ples.—Many of these children, who are bred up 
in quarters, see little but what you shew them : 
—So that if you set bad examples before them, 
you may be sure they will do the like, and your 



121 


wickedness will net only destroy your own souls, 
but will teach your children to do the same 5— 
and, by thus going before them, lead them as it 
were by the hand, in the direct road to hell. A 
sad and grievous reflection !•—that a bad exam¬ 
ple shall not only bring yourselves into ever¬ 
lasting misery, but your poor unhappy offspring 
also!—Whereas, if you behave yourselves well, 
and set a good example before them, you shall 
save your own souls, through the mercy of God, 
and give your little ones cause to bless you after 
your death, for shewing them the way to be hap¬ 
py in another world, and of getting possessions 
there, of far greater value than the w hole world 
you live in. 

If, then, it be so much your duty to give good 
advice, and good examples to your fellow-ser¬ 
vants,—how great must be the sin of tempting 
and persuading any one to wickedness ?—It is 
the devil’s own office, and what he delights in, 
to make people wicked ; so that whoever strives, 
by advice, or persuasion, to make others bad, is 
so far doing the devil’s own business. If, there¬ 
fore, you entice or persuade a fellow-servant to 
lie , or swear for you,—to help you to deceive 
your owners or others,—to cheats to rob, or steal , 
for supporting your idleness,—to get drunk with 
you, or partake with you in any sort of wicked¬ 
ness,—do you not think that God will not only 
punish you for your own faults, but also, upon 
account of those others whom you wickedly draw 
into sin ?*—Is it not enouuh for you to destroy 
your own souls, without putting others into the 
w ay of damnation ?—Take care then, my bre¬ 
thren, that you do not bring the blood of others 
upon your own heads ; for to murder the poor 



122 


soul, by causing ary one to sin, is the worst of all 
murders. 

After taking so much pains to shew you how 
sincerely you ought to love one another, and ail 
mankind, you may easily see that Almighty Goa 
will be exceeding angry with you, if you be ill. 
natured and spiteful , malicious , or evil inclined , 
towards your fellow‘Servants or any others.—For 
our Lord and saviour Jesus Gheist is 60 far 
from suffering any of his disciples, or such as pre¬ 
tend to be Christians, to bear any hatred or ill 
will in their hearts, that he commands us to lore 
the very worst of our enemies, and such as are 
striving to do us a mischief. The rule he hath 
given us is this :— *1 say unto you , love your ene¬ 
mies, bless them that curse you , do good to them 
that hate you, andpray for them that despitefully 
use you , and persecute you. And the reason lie 
gives for it is this, that ye may be the children of 
your father which is in heaven ;—for he maketk 
his sun to rise upon the evil , and on the good, and 
sendeth his rain upon the just and upon the unjust . 
That is,—that we may shew ourselves to be the 
children of God, by being like him, who is so good, 
that he does not take away the comfort of the 
gun and rain, nor the common blessings of this 
life, even from wicked people, who are always 
provoking him, aud do not deserve the least of 
his mercies to them. Besides, he bath given us 
the greatest encouragement to forgive every one 
that does us any harm or mischief, by promising 
to forgive us our sins against him, upon that ac¬ 
count. And hath, at the same time, threatened, 
that if we will be of a malicious, revengeful tem¬ 
per,. and bear spite and anger in our hearts, ho 
never will forgive us And without his pardon, 

* Matt. v. 44, 45. 



123 


the very best of us must be lost and undone for 
ever. For if , gaith our saviour, ye || forgive 
men their trespasses , your heavenly father will also 
forgive you :—-But if ye. forgive not men their 
trespasses, neither will your heavenly father for¬ 
give your trespasses. 

IV. Having thus set before you the duty you 
owe to your fellow-servants arid others, I shall 
now endeavour to shew j'ou the duty you owe to 
yourselves . 

And here, let me ask you a short, plain ques¬ 
tion,—do you LOVE YOURSELVES ?—NoW yOU 

look surprized, as if you thought 1 asked you 
some strange thing, and out of the way;—Sut 
let me put it to you again,— do you really love 
yourselves ?—You will say,—to he sure we do 5 — 
for there is no body but what love themselves bet¬ 
ter than they love anyone else.- 1 heartily 

wish, my brethren, that this- w r ere true ; for then 
most people w ould live in a very different man¬ 
ner. But, indeed, there is not a word in the 
vrorld that people in general abuse more, or are 
more mistaken about than that one word love.— 
So that a thinking person w-ould be apt to fancy, 
that niue in ten who talk of it, do not know the 
meaning of it.—Some-people will call it love to a 
neighbour, w hen they are making him drunk, de¬ 
stroying his time, debauching his mind, and mak¬ 
ing a mere beast of him. 

And poor deluded creatures will think they 
love themselves, while they are doing that for the 
sake of a little present pleasure, which will make 
them liable to lasting pain and punishment.— 
But pray mind what I am going to say, and I will 
endeavour to make it out plainly toyour under¬ 
standings, that every Christian who tr ulv love# 
fl Matt, vi. 14, 



124 


himself, must needs go to heaven, and that no 
man ever yet went, or will go, to hell, but for 
Want of loving himself as he ought to do. 

.You know, that every one of us have souls 
to be saved, as well as bodies to be taken care of: 
'—And as the soul is the better and more precious 
part, we ought to love it best. For if the soul be 
safe in paradise, the body is safe enough j^for in 
that case, although it belaid in the ground to rot, 
and become meat for worms, or turn into dust, 
yet it shall rise again at the last day, and then 
be received together, with the soul, into the joys 

of heaven,-But if the soul be lost, the body 

will peiish too, and be cast into hell along with 
it, at the great day of judgment.—If, therefore, 
-& man loves his soul , so as to take due care of it, 
he certainly loves himself \ as he ought to do $— 
-for in so doing, he secures eternal happiness both 
to his soul and body. But if he loves his body 
better than his soul, and runs into wickednes to 
satisfy the desires of that worse part, he eannot 
be said to love himself truly, because, by so doing 
Jhe ruins both for ever. 

■Suppose a man should break open a house, or 
rob upon the high road,—foolish people might 
think loved himself, because he could make 
merry, aud enjoy himself, as he foolishly calls it, 
with the money. But suppose this man should 
be taken up, and condemned to be hanged for 
what he had done $—pray, would not the silliest 
of yon be ready enough to say, that if he had any 
true love for himself, he would have taken care 
not to come to that shameful, untimely end ?— 
This is exactly the case of sin against do s, only 
with this difference, that a ? obber or murderer 
may have a chance of escaping the hands of men; 
no sinner can escape the hand of God.—- 



125 


If, therefore, a man should hare all sorts of plea¬ 
sure at command, while he lived in this world ; 
denying himself nothing that his heart wished 
for, but living in mirth and jollity all his days, 
acd, for want of minding his soul, should, at his 
death, be shut out of heaven surely any one, 
that Lath the least understanding or common 
sense must say, that such a one, after all the 
pains he took to please his body, never had any 
true love for himself , or lie would have taken 
some heed that he might not come to such a dread¬ 
ful END. . 

Do you, therefore, my brethren, bear this in 
mind, and take heed,—that whatever becomes of 
your bodies here, be sure that your souls be taken 
eare of; and then, you will indeed love yourselves 

as you ought to do,-So that you see; the chief 

duty you owe to yourselves, is,—to take care of 
your souls. And in order to this, 

i . Strive to come to the knowledge of God , and 
to learn your duty to him for this is beyond all 

other knowledge.-And indeed, he that knows 

just as much as will help to earry him to heaven, 
knows as much as the wisest man upon earth 
need know:—Whereas, if a man had more learn¬ 
ing than the whole nation lie lived in besides, and 
was ever so much admired for his wisdom among 
men, yet if he neglected the true knowledge, and 
lost heaven with all his learning, he would prove 
to be a very fool.— — Come, therefore, to church 
as often as you can, for in this place you are 
most likely to learn this heavenly knowledge. 
If vou hear any thing that you do not understand 
anil want to be informed, come to me when you 
have opportunity, and you know I am always 
ready and glad to instruct you.—Inquire of your 
fellow-servants that you think know better, and 
L 2 



126 


talk much and often with them, about the means 
of getting to heaven.—When you cannot come to 
church, ask those that have been there, what 
goud advice they have heard, and put them upon 
remembering it to their own benefit, by telling it 
to you.—-Beg of your masters and mistresses, or 
your overseers, to teaeh you to say your prayer*; 
io instruct you in the catechism, and to shew you, 
how you ought to serve God. If you want a 
»eals*s meat, or any piece of clothing you can 
readily ask them ;—and why not for what is far 
better, and will cost them less; I mean, for nour¬ 
ishment and comfort to your souls ? 

Often fall down upon your knees before Al¬ 
mighty God, and pray to him, that he will send 
you the means of instruction, and open your un¬ 
derstanding, that yon may chuse what is right and 
good ;—And be sure, when God puts good oppor¬ 
tunities in your Way, that you make a right use 
of them, and let nothing slip you, which may be 
useful to your souls, and help you on towards e- 
terual happiness. 

2. Make a pood use of your leisure time . You 
will say, perhaps, that you have very little of it. 
Well, if you have the less, God will require the 
the less of you ;—but he expects that you should 
make a good use of that little. If the week-days 
afford you very little leisure, the Sundays, at 
least, are your own in a great measure. Al¬ 
mighty God, in his great wisdom and goodness, 
hath given one day in seven to you for your eom- 
fort and refreshment, and for serving him in and 
learning your duty,—and it is confirmed to yon 
by the laws of the country ;—so that no master or 
mistress can take it from you (unless in a case of 
absolute necessity) without offending against the 
laws of God and man, And sure, you cannot say, 
you want leisure. 



127 


In all the observations I have made upon man¬ 
kind, I have generally found, that when they com 
plained of want of leisure, they commonly meant, 
they had not as much time to themselves as they 
could wish for, to throw away in idleness and di¬ 
version, or in pursuit of their sinful pleasures— 
and this, I am afraid, is your case. For I have 
remarked to you before, how abominably you 
spend your leisure time ; and instead of doing 
good to each other, and encouraging one another 
to do your duty, and behave like Christians, you 
rather tempt, provoke, and entiee each other to 
sin, and waste the little time God spares you, 
for serving and honouring him, in the service and 
work of his, and your own greatest enemy, the 
devil;—for whenever you are doing wickedly, 
you are serving that grand destroyer. Take care 
then, and lay out your leisure time to better pur¬ 
pose for the future ; and though you had much 
less than you really have, yet, by a good use of 
it, you may have time enough to save your souls, 
aud you really want no more, 

3. Strive by all means to get into God's favour: 
—for that is the only way to true happiness, 

-Remember what I told you before, that God 

loves none but those that are good , and hates none 

but those that are wicked. -Endeavour there. 

fore, to be good, that God may love you, and 
keep you from doing what is evil, for fear he 
should hate you. And that you may be certain 
of getting into God’s favour, remember what I 
now tell you, that you must first put away all sin 
and wickedness before he will hearken to you, or 
look upon you and the way to do this, is by 
repentance and amendment. You must first re¬ 
pent, aud put away evil from your heart and af¬ 
fections by a true sorrow for your past offences ; 



128 


by forsaking those sins which you know have 
made you hateful to God, and by resolving fully 
and sincerelv, bv his help, never to do the like a- 
gain : then falling upon your knees, and begging 
his pardon for what you have done amiss, make 
sincere promises to him of your amendment for 
the future, praying for his grace and blessing up¬ 
on your endeavours to serve him. And then 
strive to put away the evil from your actions , by 
labouring to keep from what is bad, and to do 
what you know is right and good. This method 
cannot fail of procuring you the favour of God, 
which is of more worth than the possession of the 
whole world without it. 

I shall make an end of what i proposed to say 
concerning your duty to God, to your masters, to 
your fellow.servants and others, and to your¬ 
selves, by giviug you a few needful cautions, 
And, ... , , 

First, take care not to be deceived with a fool¬ 
ish notion, that being baptized, and coming some¬ 
times to church, will be sufficient to bring you to 
heaven:— For you cannot possibly fall into a 
worse mistake. 

I am afraid, there are too many in'the world, 
of all sorts, who thus deceive themselves, to the 
rreat hazard of their immortal souls. But re¬ 
member what I now tell you,—that our blessed 
Saviour will own none to be his at the last day, 
but sueh as have faithfully and honestly endea. 
voured to do what he hath commanded. We are 
called Christians after the name of Christ, and 
because we profess ourselves to be his servants 
and disciples. But surely, we cannot expect that 
he should pay us wages, and provide for us in 
heaven, as belonging to his family, unless we do 
Jiis work. Nay, he hath declared in plain terms/ 



12Q 


that * not every one that calleth him Lord, Lord , 
shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but on¬ 
ly euch as shall do the will of his heavenly 
father. You Bee then, that there i8 a great differ¬ 
ence between a Christian in name, and a Christian 
in deed ;—so great a difference, that none but 
those who are Christians in deed shall be received 
into heaven ; while all such as pretend to be¬ 
lieve in Christ, and, at the same time, neglect his 
service, and do wickedly, shall be shut out of 
heaven, and have their portion with the devil and 

bis angels.-Our blessed saviour, speaking 

of the dreadful day of judgment, when all man¬ 
kind, both the living and the dead, shall stand be¬ 
fore him to receive the reward of their deeds, 
makes use of these very words,— ! Many will say 
unto me in that day , Lord, Lord, have we riot 
prophesied in thy name ? and in thy name have cast 
out devils? and in thy name have done many 
wonderful works ?—JInd then will I profess unto 
them, I never knew you s depart from me, ye that 

work iniquity •-If therefore, you would he 

Christians indeed, you must remember that bap¬ 
tism is no more than the entrance into Christiani¬ 
ty, the gate which opens into the road towards 
heaven, so that when you are baptized, you are 
hut just put iuto the way, and if you stop there 
you will still be as far from eternal happiness as 
when you first set out .*—And you cannot surely 
hope to reach heaven, unless you push forward, 
and strive to get nearer and nearer, by growing 
better and better. If, besides what hath been 
said, you will but consider that every good thing 
we do, is making a step farther towards God, and 
that every wilful siu we commit, carries us a de¬ 
gree farther towards hell than we were before, 
* Matt. vii. 21. t Mat k 22> 23.- 



130 


you will easily understand how people ra^y be 
baptized, and go often to church, and call them- 
selves Christians as long as they live ; yet, if they 
never take care to do what they promised in bap- 
tismj—if they seldom or never mind what they 
hear in church,—-or if, instead of behaving like 
Christians, and serving God, they w ork wicked¬ 
ness, and follow their own evil inclinations,— 
You will, I say, easily see how such people, not¬ 
withstanding the Christianity they profess, and 
pretend to, will be so far from gaining heaven, 
that our Saviour assures us, they shall lose their 
own souls, aud be ruined and undone for ever.. 

2. Take good heed, that you be notdrawn aside 
hythe evil example or counsel of others , or thal 
you do not deceive yourselves t by thinking that 
you are safe enough while you do no worse that, 
some that ought to know better than yourselves- 

It is a very sad and melancholy truth, that the 
wnrld every where abounds with bad examples, 
and that where one person strives to do his duty 
to the best of his knowledge, there are ten who 
sin with .their eyes open, and do things which 
their own consciences tell them are wrong. I 
have just now shewn you, how to know' a true 
Christian from one that is only a Christian in 
name. Whenever, therefore, you see any one do¬ 
ing wicked things, or behaving disorderly, take 
no example by him ; he is going the wrong way 
himself, and it is not fit far you to follow him, ex¬ 
cept you have a mind to destroy yourself, and be 
undone for ever. The white people, who are bred 
up in the profession of Christianity from their 
cradles, and have better education and oppor¬ 
tunities than you can pretend to, ought to know 
better ;-r-but,*I am sorry to say it, there are many 
of them, whose examples would be very danger- 



ous ones for you io follow :—I pray, Go© grant 
them more consideration, and a due sense of their 
own sad condition aud that you may have the 
understanding to perceive the evil of their ways, 
aud grace'to avoid doing such things, 

3. Take eare that you do not fret or murmur , 
grumble or repine , at your condition ;—for this 
will not only make your own life uneasy, but will 
greatly offend Almighty God. Consider, that it 
is not yourselves,—it is not the people you belong 
to,—it is not the men that have brought you to 
it;—but it is the will of God, who hath, by his 
Providence, made you servants, because,no 
doubt, he knew that condition would be best for 
you in this world, and help you the better towards 
heaven, if you would but do your duty in it. So 
that any discontent at your not being/ree, or rich, 
or great, as you see some others, is quarelliug 
with your heavenly master, and finding tault with 
God himself, who hath made you what you are, 
and hath promised you as large a share in the 
kingdom of heaven as the greatest man alive, if 
you will but behave yourselves aright, and do the 
business he hath set you about iu the world hon¬ 
estly and cheerfully. Riches and power have 
proved the ruin of many an unhappy soul, by 
drawing awuy the heart and affections from God, 
and fixing them upon mean and sinful eryoy- 
ments ;—so that when God, who knows our hearts 
better than we know them ourselves, sees that 
they would be hurtful to us, and therefore keeps 
them from us, it is the greatest mercy and kiud- 
tieas he could shew to us. You may perhaps 
fancy, that if you had riches and freedom, yon 
could do your duty to Gob and man with greater 
pleasure than you can do no.v :—But pray con¬ 
sider, that if you can but save your souls, 



132 


through the mercy of God, yon will have spent 
your time to the best of purposes in this world : 
—and he that at the last can get to heaven, has 
performed a noble journey, let the road be ever so 
rugged or difficult. Besides, you really have a 
great advantage over most white people, who 
have not only the care of their daily labour upon 
their hands, but the care of looking forward, and 
providing necessaries for the morrow and next 
day, and of clothing and bringing up their chil¬ 
dren, aud of getting food and raiment for as many 
of you as belong to their families, which often 
puts them to great difficulties, and distracts their 
minds, so as to break their rest, and take off their 
thoughts from the affairs of another world : * 

Whereas you are quite eased from all these cares 
and have nothing but your daily labour to look 
after, and when that is done to take your needful 
rest. Neither is it necessary for you to think of 
laying up any thing against old age, as white peo¬ 
ple are obliged to do ;—for the laws of the coun¬ 
try have provided that you shall not be turned off 
when you are past your labour, but shall be 
maintained, while you live, by those you belong 
to, whether you are able to work or not. And 
these are great and real advantages, for which if 
you consider things rightly, you cannot but thank 
Almighty God, who hath so wisely provided for 
your well-'beiDg here, and your eternal happiness 
hereafter. There is only one circumstance which 
may appear grievous, that I shall now take no¬ 
tice of, and that is correction. Now, when 
correction is given you, you either deserve it, or 
do notdeserveit. But whetheryou really deserveit 
or not, it is your duty, & Almighty God requires, 
that you bear it patiently. You may, perhaps, 
think that this is hard doctrine, but if you consi- 



der it right, you must needs think otherwise of it B 
Suppose then that you deserve correction, you 
cannot but say that it is just and right you should 
meet with it Suppose you do not, or at least, you 
do not deserve so much, or so severe a correction 
for the fault you have committed, you perhaps, 
have escaped a great many more, and are at last 
paid for all. Or suppose yon are quite innocent 
of what is laid to your charge, and suffer wrong¬ 
fully in that particular thing, is it not possible 
you may have done some other bad thing that ne¬ 
ver was discovered; and that Almighty God, who 
saw you doing it, would not let you escape with¬ 
out punishment one time or another ? And ought 
you not in such a case give the glory to him, and 
be thankful that he would rather punish you in 
this life for your wickedness, than destroy your 
sonls for it in the next life ?—But supposing that 
even this was not the case, (a case hardly to be 
imagined) and thatyou have by no means, known 
or unknown , deserved the correction you suffered, 
there is this great comfort in it, that if you bear it 
patiently, and leave your cause in the hands of 
God, he will reward you for it in heaven, and the 
punishment you suffer unjustly here, shall turn to 
your exceeding great glory hereafter. 

I have thus endeavoured to lay before you the 
chief articles of your duty, many of which do 
indeed concern others as well as you, and of 
which I hope they and you will take due notice* 
But lest you should think that this duty is heavy 
and hard to be performed, by such poor, weak, 
frail creatures, subject to temptation, and inclined 
to sin and wlekedness as we are,—l must tell you, 
that though of ourselves we cannot do these 
things as we ought,—yet, if we strive to the best 
of our knowledge and power, and look up to God 



134 


and pray to him for grace, he hath promised to 

f ive us the help of his holy spirit ; to cleanse our 
earfs; to lead us into all truth, and to enable us 
to perform our duty as we ought to do.—-And as 
this is the greatest comfort a Christian can have, 
to know, that if he asks for it in prayer, he shall 
have the assistance of the holy spirit of God, to 
guide him in the way to heaven; and help him to 
get the better of the temptations which the world , 
the flesh, or the devil shall throw in his way ; — 
so this holy spirit is called the' eomforteii, and, 
as such, was promised by our Saviour to his dis¬ 
ciples, and to all true Christians, as the best and 
mest precious gift he could bestow upon them, af¬ 
ter he was taken up into heaven ;—whither he is 
gone before, to prepare places for all his faithful 
servants in heaven. A reward which every good 
Christian shall receive from him, whether he he 
hand or free. 

This leads us to the consideration of the last 
point, proposed to be laid before you, and that is, 
HI. What kind of reward you may expect to 
receive from him, 

And upon this head I shall say the less, because 
it is beyond all description :—for eye hath* not 
seen, nor ear heard , neither have entered into the 
heart of man, the things which GOD hath pre¬ 
pared for them that love him. If you are desi¬ 
rous of rest , the holy spirit of God hath declared 
by a voice from heaven, that those who die in the 
Lord, that is, those who by serving him here, do 
die in his favour, are blessed, for they have rest 
from their labours. If you desire freedom, serve 
the Lord here, and you shall be his freemen in 
heaven hereafter ,—For he that is called in the 
Lord, though he be a servant , is the Lord's free* 
1 Cor. ii. 9. 



135 


man; while, at the same time, he who is called 
being free, is still Christ’s servant . If yon desire 
riches, Christ hath provided an inheritance in the 
kingdom of heaven, for the reward of his faithful 
servants ;—and that shall last for ever, and can¬ 
not be taken from you. The riches that he will 
bestow upon you, are not like the riches of this 
world, which the moth and the' rust can eat 
through , or which thieves can steal away from you; 
but he bestows upon his servants treasures in hea¬ 
ven, which no waste or corruption can reach, and 
which will be secured to you to all eternity. And if 
you love pleasure, in his presence is fulness of jay, 
and at his right hand are pleasures for evermore. 
Are not these, my brethren and sisters , pleasures 
worth seeking after ?—Are not these privileges , 
this freedom, and these possessions, of far more va¬ 
lue than thousands of worlds like this we live is, 
which we must all leave in a short time, and 
cannot carry with us into another life ?—-And can 
you ever sufficiently admire the goodness of God, 
or ever be thankful enough to him for his loving 
kindness, who hath set these glories and these en- 
jeyments as much within the reach of the poorest 
slave among you, as of the greatest prince alive. 
For it is not worldly riches, it is not power, and 
high station, that can purchase these heavenly 
possessions;—they are only to be gained by good¬ 
ness and serving of God —and the meanest of 
you can be good, and can serve God as much as 

the richest of your masters.-And now I pray 

that the good spirit of God may take you into his 
holy teaching, and may so sanctify your natures 
while you live in this world, that when you go 
out of it God may say to you, u Come ye blessed 
children inherit the kingdom prepared for you 
from the foundation of the world— Jlrtizn—Jimetu 



V V X f ; 




The following resolutions on the subject treated of 
in this part, are from the work of 
Dr. Gotten Mather. 


1 st. I would always remember, that my ser¬ 
vants are in seme sense my children, and by tak¬ 
ing care that they want nothing which may be 
good tor them, I would make them as my chil¬ 
dren ; and so far as the methods of instituting 
piety into the mind which I use with my children, 
may be properly and prudently used with ray ser¬ 
vants, they shall be partakers ip them—-Nor will 
I leave them ignorant of any thing, wherein I may 
instruct them to be useful to their generation. 

2i. I will see that my servants be furnished 
with bibles and be able and careful to read the 
lively oracles. I will put bibies and other good 
and proper books into their hands ; will allow 
them time to read and assure myself that they do 
not mispend this time—If I can discern any wick¬ 
ed books in their hands, I will take away those 
pestilential instruments of wickedness, 

3 d. I will have my servants present at the re¬ 
ligious exercises of my family ; and will drop, 
either in the exhortations, in the prayers or daily 
sacrifices of the family such pages as may have 
a tendeney to quicken a sense of religion in them. 

4 th. The article of eatecliising, as far as the 
age or stale of the servants will permit it to be 
done with decency, shall extend to them also.-—■ 
And they shall be concerned in the conferences ia 
which I may be engaged with my family, in the 



138 


repetition of tbe public sermons. If any of them 
when they come to me shall not have learned the 
catechism, I will take care that they do it, and 
will give them a reward when they have accom¬ 
plished it. 

5th. I will be very inquisitive and solicitous 
about the company chosen by my servants $ and 
with all possible earnestness will rescue them 
from the snares of evil company, and forbid their 
being the companions of fools. 

6 th. Such of my servants as may be capable of 
the task, I will employ to teach lessons of piety 
lo my children, and will recompence them for so 
doing. But I would, by a particular artifice, con¬ 
trive them to be such lessons, as may be for th^r 
own edification too. 

7th. I will sometimes call my servants alone : 
talk to them about the state of their souls ; tell 
them to close with their only servant, charge 
them to do well and “ lay hold on eternal life,’* 
and shew them very particularly how they may 
render all they do for me a service to the glorious 
Lord ; how they may do all from a principle of 
obedience to him, and become entitled to the 
“ reward of the heavenly inheritance.*’ 

To those resolutions I add the following pages 
as an appendix. 

Age is nearly Sufficient, with some masters t» 
obliterate every letter and action in the history of 
a meritorious life, and old services are generally 
buried under the ruins of an old carcase. It is a 
barbarous inhumanity in men towards their ser¬ 
vants, to account their small failings as crimes, 
without allowing their past services to have been 
virtues : gracious God, keep thy servants from 
such base ingratitude ! 

But then 0 servants, if you would obtain “ the 



139 


reward of the inheritance,’* each of you should 
set yourself to enquire, “ how shall I approve 
myself such a servant, that the Lord may bless 
the house of my master, the more for my being 
in it ?’* Certainly there are many ways by which 
servants may become blessings. Let your studies 
with your continual prayers for the welfare of 
the family to which you belong ; and the example 
of your gober carriage render you such. If you 
will but remember four words and attempt all 
that is comprised in them, Obedience, h,ontsty , 
Industry , and Fiety, you will be the blessings and 
Josephs of the families in which you live. Let 
these four words be distinctly aud frequently re¬ 
collected; and cheerfully perform all your busi¬ 
ness from this consideration—that it is obedience 
to heaven, and from thence will leave a recom- 
penee. It was the observation even of a pagan, 
“ That a master may receive a benefit from a 
servant j” and “what is done with the affection 
of a friend, ceases to be the act of a mere ser¬ 
vant.” Even the maid-servants of a house may 
render a great service to it, by instructing the in¬ 
fants and instilling into their minds the lessons of 
goodness. 



140 


The following very interesting and sim¬ 
ple Dialogue was written by a gentle¬ 
man of our own Country and deserves 
to be read with attention. 


The following dialogue took place between 
Mr. Jackson the master of a family, and the 
slave of one of his neighbours who lived adjoin¬ 
ing the town, on this occasion. Mr. Jackson 
was walking through the common and came to a 
field of this person’s farm, He there saw the 
slave leaning against the fence with a book in his 
hand, which he seemed to be very intent upon ; 
after a little time he closed the book, and clasp¬ 
ing it with both his hands, looked upwards as if 
engaged in mental prayer; after this, he put the 
book in his bosom, and walked along the fence 
near where Mr. Jackson was standing. Surpris¬ 
ed at seeing a person of bis colour engaged with 
a book, and still more by the animation and de¬ 
light that he observed in his countenance ; he de¬ 
termines to enquire about it, and calls to him as 

So I see you have been reading, my 


lad ? 

Slave. Yes sir. . 

Mr J. Well, I have a great curiosity to see 
what you were reading so earnestly ; will you 
shew me your book? 



141 


Slave. To be sure sir. (And he presented it to 
him very respectfully.) 

Mr. J. The Bible I—Pray when did you get 
this book ? And who taught you to read it ? 

Slave. I thank God sir, for the book. I do 
not know the good gentleman who gave it to me, 
but I am sure God sent it to me. I was learning 
to read in town at nights, and one morning a gen¬ 
tleman met me in the road as I had my spelling 
hook open in my hand: he asked me if 1 could 
read, I told him a little, and he gave me this 
book and told me to make haste and learn to read 
it, and to ask God to help me, and that it would 
make me as happy as any body in the world. 

Mr. J. well did you do so ? 

Slave. 1 thought about it for some time, and 1 
irondered that any body should give me a book or 
care about me $ and 1 wondered what that could 
he which could make a poor slave like me so hap¬ 
py ; and so I thought more and more of it, and I 
said 1 would try and do as the gentleman bid me, 
and blessed be God 1 he told me nothing but the 
truth. 

Mr. J. Who is your master ? 

Slave. Mr. Wilkin's sir, who lives in that 
house. 

Mr. J. I know him $ he is a very good man ; 
but what does lie say to your leaving his work to 
read your book in the field J 

Slave. I was not leaving his work, sir. This 
book does not teach me to neglect my master’s 
work. I could not be happy if I did that.—I have 
done my breakfast sir, and am waitiug till the 
horses are done eating. 

Mr. J. Well, what does that book teach you f 

Slave. Ohsir! every thing that Ijwant to know 
—ail l am to do, this book tells me, and so plain. 



It shew me first that I was a wretched, ruined 
sinner, and what would become of me if l died in 
that state* & then when I was day & night in dread 
ofGbn’s calling me to account for my wicked?, 
ness, and did not know which w ay to look for 
my deliverance, reading over andover again those 
dreadful words, “depart from me ye cursed into 
everlasting fire,” then it revealed to me how 
Jesus Christ had consented to come and suffer 
punishment lox us in our stead, and bought par¬ 
don for us. by his blood, and how by believing on 
him and serving him, I might become a child of 
Goo, so that I need be no more terrified by the 
thoughts of God’s anger but sure of his forgive, 
ness and love. O sir, when I learned all this, 
and found that God loved such a poor creature 
as me, that Jesus Christ died for rae, it filled 
me with such love to God and such a desire to 
know and serve him, that I could think or eare 
for. nothing else. And (hough I was ignorant 
how I was to serve God, and often thought what 
could Ido for Goa* yet I was stire I was willing to 
know what I should do, and all such, God pr o* 
mises, in his book, that he will teach. 

And sure enough I now see that it is no strange 
and great thing 1 am to da to be saved ; I am to 
trust in Jesus Chzrs.t and do his commands.—I 
am a slave and have to work for my mastbr ; I 
am to do his work considering it as God's work, 
and what he has ordered me to do ; and in this 
state I am to be content, and do all the duties of 
it cheerfully and faithfully, and God will reward 
jne ; and indeed I have good reason to be content 
and thankful, and I sometimes think more so thap 
if I was free and ever so rich and great; for then 
I might be tempted to love and serve myself more 
than God, as rieh and great people are apt te 



143 


do ; and besides, even if I wished to serve God in 
such a state as that, I might not know how to do 
it;—I might not know very often how I was to 
act, what things 1 should do aad what I should 
avoid. But now I can’t help knowing my duty. 
I am to serve God in that state iu which he has 
placed me. I am to do what my master orders 
me ;■—my work is already appointed for me, and 
whatever it is, I am to do it as well as ever I can 
without my masters’s looking after tne, and al¬ 
ways remembering that my great master in Hea¬ 
ven sees me, and that I am serving him when I 
am serving my master : and sometimes, and while 
I am at work these thoughts make me so happy 
that I think I can scarcely Jove God well enough 
for making me what is in this blessed book. 

Mr. J. Well, this book has done great things 
for you indeed, and if you give a true account of 
it, it has done for you all the gentleman promis¬ 
ed when he gave it to you. But did you not find 
it very diffkcult to bear this new way of life and 
give up your old sins ? 

Slave. Master, God made it easy to me when 1 
saw that he would stoop to think of such a poor 
creature as me, and that Jesus Christ was not 
above dying for me, it so filled me with love that 
every thing seemed easy to me. 

Mr. J, 1 see your horses are coining out, but 
I shall be glad to talk with you further some 
other time—I hope you will continue in yonr 
present mind. 

Slave. 1 thank you master ; God bless you. 

£Here Mr. J. pursued his walk ; but soon re¬ 
flecting on what he had heard, he resolved 
to walk by Mr. Wilkins‘s house and enquire 
into this affair from him. This he did, and 
finding him the following conversation took 
$lace between them*] 



144 


Mr, J. Sir, 1 have been talking with a man of 
yours in that field, who was engaged, while his 
horses were eating, in reading u book; which I 
asked him to shew mo & found it was the bible ; 
thereupon I asked him some questions and his 
answers, and the account he gave of himself, 
have surprized me greatly. 

Mr. W. I presume it was Will—and though I 
do not know what he may have told you, yet I 
will undertake to say that he told you nothing 
but the truth. I am alw ays safe in believing him, 
and do not believe he would tell me an untruth 
for any thing that could be offered him. 

Mr. J. 1 thought his manner indicated as much 
and saw no reason to doubt him—It is an in¬ 
stance of God’s grace that affects me strongly, 
and I would be glad to know how he attained his 
present state, and that clear view of his religious 
duties which he seems to have, whether by your 
assistance and advice or otherwise. 

Mr. W. Alas sir, he has been (I must o wn) a 
far greater help to me than I have ever been to 
him.—‘For when I saw what religion had done 
for him, it excited me to reflect more seriously on 
the importance of that which my worldly cares 
had made me quite negligent of. 

This man sir, strange as it may seem, was a- 
mong the worst among my people; he was always 
idle when my eyes were not upon him; I could not 
trust him to market with my things, for he was 
neither sober nor honest, and though often chas¬ 
tised, he grew worse and I had almost resolved 
to sell him that J might be no more plagued with 
him ; this continued to be the case till about four 
years ago 1 then thought I remarked that ho 
was grave and serious; I should have thought it 



145 


«ullenness, but he was more complaisant and obe¬ 
dient than usual ; in a little time 1 saw that he 
was greatly changed, that his work was well 
done, that he was always in place, and seemed 
at all times anxious to receive my orders which 
were sure to be faithfully attended to. I thought 
him entitled to commendation and one day told 
him I was pleased to see him do so well—He re¬ 
plied, master, 1 have been a vvickM good for 
nothing servant; l hope you will forgive me, and 
that I shall never do amiss again. 1 had observ¬ 
ed that some how or other, without my know¬ 
ledge, he had been learning to read; but I did 
not know what had produced his reformation, till 
I found he was always reading the book you saw 
him with at his leasure times, cither by himself 
or to the other servants„ I talked with him and 
was as much surprised, as you have been, at what 
he told me. 

Mr. J. No doubt you gave him encourage¬ 
ment. ... 

Mr. W. Yes, that I could not help doing j and 
it set me to thinking how strange it was that he 
of all that belong to my family, should become 
religious ; and that without either instruction or 
example from me. I liad never even recommen¬ 
ded religion to him,—I had never worshiped Go» 
in my family, I went to town on Sabbath-days, to 
church, and thought that was all a Christian 
need do. What my blacks did on the Sabbath, 
I cared nothing about ; they commonly worked 
in their patches, or went to town to sell their 
things. But I need not trouble you sir, with tel¬ 
ling you how these thoughts preyed on my mind 
and what they, set me upon. 

Mr. J. That my dear sir, is what I chiefly wish 
to learn : for 1 feel that I have been sadly wanting 
N 



146 

in what I now begin to perceive is no small part 
of my duty. 

Mr. W. Why, sir, as I was telling you, I 
weighed all these things, and thought more and 
more upon lhem,as I observed the increasing dili¬ 
gence and fidelity o t this man ; and as I moreo¬ 
ver saw how happy and contented he had become. 
God was merciful to me, and led me on step by 
step, to know my own guilt and his goodness. 
Idetermimed that I would reform that in which 
I had first seen my sinfulness, and that I would 
not only pray myself, but make my house a house 
of prayer. I spoke to Will and told him one 
Sunday morning, to desire the people all to come 
tome, that I had something to say to them. 
When they came I told them in a few .vords, that 
I had neglected what I now’ considered a great 
duty ; that w r e had not worshipped God together 
as I should have called on them to do ; that per¬ 
haps many of them were ignorant of God, and , 
what they must do to gain his favour ; that I 
wished such as needed instruction to eome to me 
at proper times, and I would read to them and 
talk to them. That hereafter every night and 
morning we should join in family prayer, and 
hear some portion of the bible read', and that on 
Sunday’s they should no more employ their time 
in wot k or in selling their goods ; that I would 
allow them other times for such things, and that 
on every Sabbath morning I should read to them 
and pray with them, and that then such as could 
leave home should go into town, where I would 
&xpect to see them at church ; and at night we 
should meet together again for reading and pray, 
er, and that none must be absent without leave, 
or a sufficient excuse. I then selected a chapter 
of the new testament, and read a suitable prayer 



147 


which I had promised. They were all attentive, 
though 1 perceived many of them much surprised 

Mr. J. Well sir, you have seen [ trust in your 
family, good fruits from this beginning. 

Mr. W. Yes indeed, sir, and that man was 
most instrumental in reconciling and encouraging 
all my people to'the change. Prom that time I 
have regarded him as more a friend and assis¬ 
tant, than as a slave. He has taught the youn¬ 
ger ones to read, and by his kindness and exam¬ 
ple, has been a great benefit to all. I have told 
them that I would do what I could to instruct and 
improve them ; and that if I found any so vicious, 
that they would not receive it and strive to amend, 
I would not keep them ; that I hoped to have a 
religious, praying family, and that none would 
he obstinately bent on their own ruin. And from 
time to time, I endeavoured to convince them that 
I was aiming at their own good. 1 cannot tell 
you all the happiness of the change, that God 
has been pleased to make among us, all by these 
means. And 1 have been benefitted both tempo¬ 
rally and spiritually by it; for my work is 
better done, and my people are more faithful, 
contented, and obedient than before; and I have 
the comfort of thinking that when roy Lord and 
master shall call me to account for those com¬ 
mitted to my charge, I shall not be ashamed to 
present them, 

Mr. J- You have given me great satisfaction, 
&nd I hope to profit by your example. I too, 
have been introducing religion into my family 
alter myself neglecting it all my life. But I had 
not before thought of what 1 owed to my slaves, 
or what it was practicable to do for them. It 
seems now plain to me (hat I have been greatly 
guilty, and in more things than I had supposed. 



148 


I never looked on it in this light ; But surely if 
God has put these poor creatures incur power, 
he will require at our hands what good we have 
done for them ; whether we have used them mere¬ 
ly for our profit or pleasure in this world, or 
taught them to serve him and fitted them for the 
world to come. 

Mr. W. I am glad that what I have communi¬ 
cated should lead to such just thoughts. The 
word of God is plain—The Christian should be 
the teacher and pattern of his family ; and we 
are as much, aye indeed, more bound to provide 
for the everlasting welfare of our slaves, than 
for their present necessities. All men agree that, 
that master is cruel who starves the Bodies of his 
slaves, & yet this is kindness compared with his 
cruelty who starves their souls, who brings them 
up in utter ignorance, giving them no more in¬ 
struction thaiThe does to his beasts. Do masters 
remember that they and their slaves are one day 
to stand together before the judgment seat of 
Christ, that ail are then to be judged by the 
word of God in the bible? 

Most of my people can now read; I encourage 
them to learn and give them a bible when they 
can. When one-or two have learned, it is quite 
easy to have the others, particularly the younger 
ones, taught. 

Mr. J. Well sir, as I said, I hope I shall Begin 
to do my duty in this respect. 1 shall think over 
what has passed between us, and, I hope, see 
you again: 

Mr; W. I will be most happy at all times to 
render you any service in this way, by commu¬ 
nicating my own experiments and continuances 
to further this design. 

[After returning home, the following conversa 



149 


fion took place between Mr. J. and his wife, 
his mind still dwelling on what had occurred 
during his walk.] 

Husb. My dear 1 I have discovered, I think, 
another great duty in which we have both been 
sadly wanting. We have great need to implore 
God’s forgiveness of the unchristian life we have 
been leading. 

Wife. Well my dear what is it ?■ Let us not 
be discouraged ; you know we have prayed God 
to shew us whatever is amiss in us. 

Husb. Yes, I trust It is in answer to our pray¬ 
ers that I have been led to what has happened 
this day. 

Wife, Do not fear, you know we have also 
prayed that God would give us grace and 
strength faithfully to fulfil whatever duty he ena¬ 
bled us to perceive. That prayer will also be an¬ 
swered. 

Husb. You are indeed a help-mate to me. I 
had been almost desponding; you shall hear 
what I have learned this morning. 

[Hereupon he relates the matter of tlie afore¬ 
going dialogues.] 

Wife. Mr. Wilkins has done right, and why 
mav not we hope to suceeed in the same way. I 
will gladly join you with all the help 1 can give. 
These things seem harder than they ate found 
w hen we set about them. 

Husb. I hope we shall not be discouraged, bo 
it ever so difficult. God has helped us hitherto 
in the discharge of our duties. So little had I 
thought of this that ever since we have had fami¬ 
ly prayer, we have not called in our slaves to 
join us. Hereafter let us be particular, that at 
those occasions none shall be absent without evi¬ 
dent necessity. We will both take opportunities 
N 2 



150 


of reading to them, and give them the means of 
regular attendance at church. God will open a 
way for us in the mean time to do more ; means 
may be had for teaching the youDger ones and 
such others as wish it, to read ;we can also by 
frequently reading over the catechism to them, 
fix it in their memories, and we ean also explain 
it to them where it may not be plain enough for 
them. 

Wife. It would be well also to obtain Mr. 
Wilkin’s consent that his man whom you talked 
with, should come and see our people and gain 
their acquaintance: He would set them upon 
wishing to read and might perhaps have spare 
time enough to teach them. I would also myself 
help in this, and our daughter-would not ob¬ 

ject in being so engaged. 

Husb. You have already done much to encour¬ 
age me—Let us resolve to begin without delay, 
and trust that God will contrive to teach ns his 
will and strengthen ug in his ways—Let us now 
join in our prayers to him for this purpose. 
THEIR PRAYER. 

All merciful God ! most loving and compas¬ 
sionate Father ! who pitiest thy feeble creatures 
when in their wickedness, and graciously callest 
them to consider their ways, and inclinest their 
hearts to repentance, and beholdest them with 
favour turning to thee, even when afar off, and 
kindly teaehest them thy will and givest them 
strength and ability to serve thee, receive our 
thanks for all that thou hast done for us, and our 
prayers for all that yet remains for thy goodness 
tu do for us, to make us what thou wouldst have 
us to be. 

Shew us O Lord l the path of duty, and enable 
ns to eater upon and persevere therein, commit- 



151 


ting our ways unto thee. May we never be a- 
shamed or afraid of doing what thou requires!—■ 
May we never faint or be weary in well doing, 
but be ever excited by our love of thee to a conti¬ 
nual and faithful service, remembering that we 
are not our own—that we are bought by the bles¬ 
sed blood of Christ to be his servants unto death 
—to be a peculiar people, zealous of good works. 

Lord ! in all our domestic duties, be especial¬ 
ly with us—May we be a help, support and 
encouragement to each other, joining our labours 
for the good of all thou hast placed under us, 
and our earnest prayers in their behalf. 

In this duty we are now' preparing ourselves to 
undertake—do thou O Lord ! prompt, direct and 
assist us—Make plain our way before us, remove 
all difficulties, and in this and in all things give 
us strength proportioned to whatever labour thou 
mayest place before us. 

And bless, O Lord, this and all our undertak¬ 
ings, and give us hearts to ascribe all success, 
all good, all glory to thee, who ever livest to 
hear and help and bless thy creatures. 

Hear, help and bless us must merciful Father 
for Jesus Christ’s sake. Amen. 

The geutleman mentioned in the aforegoing 
dialougues had been induceed to serve as a jus¬ 
tice of peaee that he might be useful in the neigh¬ 
bourhood. Some short time after the above- 
mentioned conversations, the constable in the vil¬ 
lage, who was rather an ignorant man, called 
upon him to inform him of what he thought a 
matter of serious concern, which lie did in these 
words. 

Const. Sir, I think it proper to acquaint you of 
what I have observed going on in the village that 
it may be stopped in time—some of the neigh- 



152 


boars are a good deal alarmed about it, and said 
I ought to state it to you, and besides some of 
your own people, certainly without your know¬ 
ledge, are concerned in it. A man of Mr. Wil¬ 
kins, is actually keeping a school for black peo¬ 
ple, and teaching, them to read. As soon as it 
was reported to me, I went to the place and 
found what they were at, and as I said before, 
two or three of your servants were among them. 
Now sir, you know best how to proceed in such 
A case in order that it may be broken up. 

Justice. Well, it this is wrong, let us see how it 
can be prevented ; you know we must go accord¬ 
ing to law. 

Const. Why sir, you know our laws prevent 
the unlawful assembling together of slaves, and 
van can issue your warrant to disperse them. 

Justice. But we must first see if this is an un¬ 
lawful assembly ; what do they do ? 

Const. Why sir, they are learning to read— 
surely there is law against that. 

Justice. I am not so clear that that is an un¬ 
lawful purpose provided that is their real object. 
Do they disturb the neighbourhood ? 

Const. No other ways shy that I hear of but 
by learning to read. But will not that disturb 
the neighbourhood ? 

Justice. I can’t see that it will, unless they 
read unseasonably loud. 

Const. As for that they are very still about it. 
And that convinces me that they will be plotting 
some mischief and laying their plans to steal; I 
dare say we shall have work enough if they are 
suffered to go on. . 

Justice. Nay, if that was their business they 
would be more cautious about it and not meet 
where children and others were whom they would 



153 


not know they could trust. Besides I cannot think 
learning to read informs people in roguery ; as 
well as I can recollect most rogues ws have had 
to deal with, could not read at all. You remem¬ 
ber poor Dick Drone, who was hung for breaking 
open Mr. Speedw ell’s house; he complained that 
he had never been taught to read and that there¬ 
fore when he was not at his work, he had nothing 
else to do but to loiter in idleness abput the streets 
or lounge in the dram shops, and that was the 
reason why he began to drink, and at last to 
stealv 

Now I think if these people were taught to 
read they might be less tempted to idleness and 
bad habits, and would stay at nights and other 
times at home with their books instead of getting 
into bad company, 

Const. But sir, slaves should be kept to their 
w'ork and ought not to have any leisure times. 
I have often thought this of Sundays and holy- 
days when I have been so often called on, and 
you too sir, to keep them in order. 

Justice. Then you thought wrong I think. 
You would not surely deny them all liolydays and 
and keep them at work on the Sabbath. This 
would be using them worse than the beasts. 

Const. Well, they should be kept at home at 
such times. 

Justice. And even then they might get into 
mischief unless you locked them up, and at nights 
too, unlesss they were secured in the same way, 
you would have to employ people to watch them. 
I think your plan would be rather troublesome 
if not impracticable, to say nothing of the injus¬ 
tice of it. 

Con. But people will not like their negroes to 
read, they have no time for such things, and if 



154 


they neglect their work for their books, their 
masters would have cause to complain. 

Just. They need not neglect their work, they 
have leisure enough, as you allow r at nights and 
Sundays, and holydays, besides other little odd 
times ;and is it not better they should have good 
books to employ their minds at such times .vhen 
they are resting their bodies, than that they 
should be giving, by their misconduct, you and 
me the trouble you have just complained of ? 

Con. Aye, but they will get bad books. 

Just. That may be prevented by their masters 
who may take them away and give them good 
ones ; they will read sueh books as are given 
them, not being generally able to buy books ; and 
good people are more apt to give away good books 
than bad people are to give away- bad ones. Be¬ 
sides, if your objection is a good one, nobody 
ought to learn to read, for fear they may get bad 
books : you ought to take your children from 
school. 

Con. But. they say it makes them impudent, 
and to my certain knowledge, there’s Ashford's 
Jack, that’s the iropudentest fellow in the whole 
county, and does not mind master or overseer a 
pin, and he ean read as glib os a lawyer. 

Just, But are you sure he would not have 
been just as impudent, without learning to read P 
As I said of your other objection, so of this, if 
reading makes people impudent, take your chil¬ 
dren from school. But I can’t conceive how 
Iearning,to read can make people impudent.*— 
There are some of us in the village who can read, 
and I believe we are quite as civil and well-be¬ 
haved, as the few vagabonds among us, who 
don’t know a letter. And why should it be 
otherwise with them ? Of the few among them 



155 


who have bren taught to read, some may be bad ; 
but reading did not make them so, and I believe 
more are good. People learn to be bad without 
books ; books are not necessary to teach them to 
steal, and lie, and swear, and drink. These 
lessons are acquired without books, by heart as 
one may say. 

Con. Well sir, as you seem to be in favour 
of it, I hope it is right $ but the people talked so 
against it, that I thought I would speak to 
you about it. 

Just. To tell you a secret about it, I knew of 
it before you did, and have been instrumental in 
getting Mr. Wilkins to let his man (who bears 
an excellent character, and though he can read, 
neither neglects his master’s work, nor is he at all 
impudent,) come in from his work an hour 
earlier than usual, of an evening, that such of 
us who choose to have our people brought up 
differently from our cattle, may have the means 
of having them taught $ and I doubt not but in a 
little time, I can induce all the neighbors (as I 
already have some of them,) to come into the 
plan. 

Con. You will find it a hard task with some 
of them , I heard two or three talk mightily a- 
gainst it. 

Just. They will understand it better, and they 
will see the good effects of it; and if they become 
religions they cannot help approving of it. Do 
you believe that our slaves will be judged by the 
same bible that we shall ? 

Con. Why, if the bible says so, I suppose— 
though I never thought about that. 

Just. “Great and 6mall, black and white, mas¬ 
ter and slave, shall stand together before the 
judgment seat of Christ,” If on that day, I 



1.56 


should be condemned, if I am found guilty of har¬ 
ing withheld from my slaves the means of pre¬ 
serving tlieir bodies, what will become of me if 
I have denied* them the means of preserving 
their souls '? If my slave who is to be judged by 
the bible, knows nothing about the bible, and I 
am the cause of this ignorance, what will be my 
sentence ? 

Con. Well sir, as I said before, 1 did not speak 
of this to you of myself, and I never thought of 
it so before ; and now I must say it seems so 
right, that upon consideration, I don’t see how 
any body, much less a Christian person, can help 
agreeing to what you say. 

Just. What will that master have to say for 
himself whose slaves have never known that bi¬ 
ble ?— 1 These are.the w ords of eternal life, and to 
those words he has given his slaves no access. 



It has been recommended to Masters $ Mistresses, 
to read select parts of the Scripture to their Ser¬ 
vants, and give simple explanations of such pas¬ 
sages, as are adapted to the capacities of their 
minds; let the following scripturalexpositionfif 
the ten Commandments be used in this way and 
serve as a specimen . 

The two first Commandments might be read toge¬ 
ther, and the literal, as well as spiritual 
meaning , explained, and enforced by the help of 
the following passages taken from other parts 
of the sacred writings, and which declare the 
same truths. 

Dcut. 4, 15 , 19.—“ Take good heed unto your¬ 
selves, lest when thou seest the Sun, and the Moon* 
and the Stars, even all the host of heaven, thou 
shouldst be driven to worship and serve them.” 

From this passage it might be mentioned to 
them, how prevalent the superstition was among 
the nations of the earth, to worship these ob¬ 
jects, and various other things which they made 
into idols. It might be shewn how this condemns 
many foolish and superstitious opiuions and prac¬ 
tices among them, in regard to the Son, and 
Moon and Stars. 

It should be carefully shewn them that loving 
and serving any person or thing moro than God, 



158 


is a breach of the first commandment* This 
might be shewn by those two passages out of the 
New Testament,—“ Ye cannot serve God and 
•Mammon,” and “ Covetousness is Idolatry*” 

The following passages have respect to the se¬ 
cond commandment, and might be read to them to 
discountenance certain improper fears and prac¬ 
tices too prevalent among such ignorant crea¬ 
tures. 

Levit. 19 , 26 .—“ Ye shall not use enchant, 
ments nor observe times.” 

J\um. 28. 23 .— “ There is no enchantment 
against Jacob no divination against Israel.” 

From this it may be shewn how the righteous 
should be afraid of nothing of this sort, being se¬ 
cure under the protection of God. 

Jerem . 21, 9.—‘‘Hearken not to your diviners, 
your dreamers, your enchanters, your sorcerers.” 
They prophesy a lie unto you. For they pro¬ 
phesy falsely unto you in my name, I have not 
sent them saith the Lord.” 

Third Commandment. 

Thou sbalt not take the name of the Lord thy 
God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him 
guiltless who taketh his name in vain. 

James 5, 12 .—“ Above all things my brethren 
swear not, neither by the heaven, nor by the 
earth, neither by any other oath, but let your 
communication be yea, yea—-nay, nay. 

ZcLchariah 8, 3.—“ This is the curse that go- 
eth forth,—every one that sweareth shall be cut 

off.’* * 

Fourth Commandment. 

Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy, See. 

Levit. 19 , 30,—“ Ye shall keep my Sabbaths 
%f»d reverence my sanctuary, I am the Lord.” 



159 


“ L<it no man go out of his place on (he Sab¬ 
bath-day to gather Manna,”— Exodus 20, 29. 

“ Neither carry forth any burthen out of your 
houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any 
work.”— Luke 23, 56. 

J Ezek. 46, 3.—“ The people shall worship be¬ 
fore the Lord on the sabbaths.” 

Matthew ±2, 12,—“ It is lawful tado wellum 
the sabbath. ^ 

“ I will have raerey and not sacrifice.”— Mat' 
them 12, 7. 

J\“ehe. 10, 29.—“ They entered into an oath 
and a curse to walk in God’s law.” 

And if the people of the land bring ware, or 
any victuals on the sabbath to sell, not to buy it 
of them on the sabbath. 

Nehe , 13,15.—“ In those days I saw in Judah 
some treading wine presses on the sabbath^ and 
bringing in sheaves, and leading asses ; as also 
wine, grapes & figs, and all manner of burthens, 
which they brought into Jerusalem on the sab¬ 
bath day, and I- testified against them, in the 
day u'herein they sold victuals.” 

“ There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, w hich 
brought fish, and all manner of ware and sold on 
the sabbath unto the children of Judah and in 
Jerusalem.” 

“Then 1 contended with the nobles of Judah and 
said unto them, what evil things is this that ye 
do, and prophane the Sabbath day ?—Did not 
your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all 
this evil upon us, and upon this^ city ? Yet ye 
bring more wrath upon Israel by prophaning the 

sablatli. 

“And it came to pass that when the gates of Je¬ 
rusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I 
commanded that the gates should be shut and 



160 


sot be opened until after the sabbath, and some 
of my servants I set at the gates, that there 
should no burthen be brought in on the sabbath 
day.” 

“So the merchants and sellers of all kinds of 
ware lodged without Jerusalem once or twice.” 

“Then I testified against ihem,and said to them, 
why lodge ye without the wall, ?f ye do so again 
I will lay hands on you; from that time forth 
come they ntrmore on the sabbath.” 

Exeept some such conduct be observed by the 
owners of slaves, and the magistrates of our stats 
in regard to our little towns,and the traffic carried 
on by night and on the sabbath, it will be impos¬ 
sible to say to what length theft & drunkenness, 
will be carried amung our negroes ;—a proper 
discipline of this kind should ever go hand in 
hand with the religious instruction of those who 
are entrusted by providence to our care. 

Fifth Commandment. 

Honor thy Father and thy Mother, that thy 
days may be long on the land which the Lord 
thy Bod giveth unto thee. 

Pro. 1, 8.—“ My son hear the instructions of 
thy father, aud forsake not the law of thy mo¬ 
ther. Bind them continually upon thy heart and 
tie them about thy neck.” 

« A wise son maketh a glad father, but a fool¬ 
ish son is the heaviness of his mother. 

“ Hearken to the father that begat thee, and* 
despise not thy mother when she is old. 

Ephes. 6, l.—“ Children obey your parents in 
the Lord, for this is right.” 

T,im. S, 4.—“ Let them learn to shew pity and 
to requite their parents. 



161 


Exodus 21, 15.—“He that smiteth his father 
or mother shall be surely put to death.” 

“ He that eurseth his father or mother shall 
surely be put to death. 

“ If a man have a stubborn or rebellious son, 
that will not obey the voice of his father or the 
voice of his mother, all the men of the city shall 
stone him with stones that he die. 

Proverbs 28, 24.— “ Whoso robbeth his father 
or his mother and saith it is no transgression, the 
same is a a companion of a destroyer.” 

Sixth Commandment . 

Thou shalt do no murder. 

Besides the dreadful punishments that are pre¬ 
pared for murderers, it should be carefully shewn 
them, that we ean be guilty of the crime of mur¬ 
der in the sight of God, without committing the 
outward act. We should read to them the ex¬ 
planation given of this law by the Saviour who 
directs us not only not to kill, or even to hate a- 
ny, but to bless even our euemies, and do good to 
them; we should especially direct their attention 
to that passage, which declares ‘‘ that whoso 
hateth his brother is a murderer, and that no mur¬ 
derer hath eternal life abiding in him:”—We 
ought to caution them against the indulgence of 
anger, which may lead them to the commission of 
this crime, and against fighting with each other, 
which often ends in death. 

Seventh Commandment. 

Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

Levi-U “ The man that comrnitteth adultery 
with another man’s wife, the adulterer and the 
adultress shall surely be put to death.” 

Matt. 5, 38.—“ Whoso looketh on a woman to 
o 2 



162 


lust after her, hath committed adultery with her 
already in his heart. 

“ Out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, a. 
dulteries, murder, fornication, and these defile 
the man. 

Frov. 5, 24.—.“ Keep thee from the evil wo¬ 
man, from the flattery of the tongue of a strange 
woman. 

“ Her house is the way to hell, going down to 
the chambers of death. 

-Ephesians 5, 5.— No whoremonger nor unclean 
person hath any inheritance in the kingdom of 
God and Christ.*’ 

Rev. 21, 8.— “ Murderers, and whoremongers. 
See. shall have their part in the lake that burneth 
with fire and brimstone.*’ 

'Eighth Commandment. 

Thou shalt not steal. 

1 Cor. 6, io.—“ Neither thieves, nor covetors,’ 
nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of 
heaven.*’ 

Exodus 22, 2.—If a thief be found breaking 
up, and he be smitten that he die, there shall no 
blood be shed for him. 

Frov. 29, 24.—“ Whoso is a partner with a 
thief, hateth his own soul.*’ 

Isaiah 41^ 8.—“ I the Lord hate robbery.’* 

Levit. 19, 25 .—“ Ye shall do uo unrighteous¬ 
ness, in judgment, in ineteyard, in weight or in 
measure.” 

l Thess , 4, 6.— <£ This is the will of God, that 
no man go beyond, or defraud his brother in any 
matter, because that the Lord is the avenger of 
all such,*’ 

•TV inth Commandment . 

Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy 
neighbour. 



163 

Pro. 19, 5,-—“ A false witness sliall not be un¬ 
punished.” 

Pro. 34, 13.—‘'Keep thy tongue from evil, and 
thy lips that they speak no guile.” 

Ephe. 4, 25 —“ Putting away lying, speak eve¬ 
ry man truth with his neighbour.” 

Prov. 12, 22 — u Lying lips are an abomination 
to the Lord, but they that deal truly are his de¬ 
light.” 

Ps. 101 63—“ I hate and abhor lying.” 

Prov . 8, 7—“ A righteous man hateth lying.” 

Isaiah 63, 8—“ My people, (saith Goi>) are 
children that will not lie." 

Prov. 12, 13—“ The wicked is snared with 
the transgression of his lips.” 

V. 19—“ A lying tongue is but for a moment.” 

Rev. 21, 8—“ Liars shall have their part in 
the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone.*' 

James 4, 11—“ Speak not evil one of another.” 

Levit. 19, 16—“Thou shalt not go up and 
down as a tale-bearer among thy people.” 

Ps. 101, 5— YVhoso privily slandereth his neigh¬ 
bour, him will I cut off.” 

Tenth Commandment. 

Thou 6halt not covet thy neighbour's house, 
thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor hig 
man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, 
nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's. 

Eph. 5, 3—“ Covetousness, let it not bq once 
named among you as becomelh saints.” 

Hebrews 13, 5—“ Let your conversation bo 
without covetousness.” 

Eph. 5, 5 —“ No covetous man hath any inher¬ 
itance in the kingdom of God and Christ.” 

Matthew 16, 26—“ What is a man profitted, 
if he gain the whole world, and yet lose his own 



164 

soul, or what shall a man give in exchange for 
his soul ?’* 

After having shewn them how they transgress 
each one of these laws, either in thought, word, 
or deed, and to what punishment they thereby 
subject themselves, we should always turn their 
attention to the Saviour, and thus make the law 
a school-master, to bring them to Christ. We 
should carefully shew them, how neither repen- 
tence for the past, nor better conduct for the fu¬ 
ture, will serve to pacify God, without the sacri¬ 
fice of Christ —we should also lead them back 
again to the law, spiritually understood, as the 
rule of their thoughts, words, and actions, by 
which they may live acceptably to Gob. 



A TRUE ACCOUNT 


or a 


PIOUS NEGRO. 


Some years ago an English Gentleman, had oc¬ 
casion to be in North America, where, among 
other adventures, the following circumstance 
occurred to him, which is related in his own 
words. 

« Every day’s observation convinces me that the 
children of God, viz. those who believe in him, 
obey him, and on snehterms are accepted by him 
through Jesus Christ, are made so by his own 
especial grace and power inclining them to what 
is good, and, assisting them when they endea¬ 
vour to be and to continue so. 

il In one of my excursions, while I was in the 
province of New* Yurk,l was walking by myself 
over a considerable plantation, amused witn its 
husbandry, and comparing it with that of my 
own country, till I came within a little distance 
of a middle aged negro, who was tilling the 
ground. I felt a strong inclination to converse 
with him. After asking him some little ques¬ 
tions about his work, which he answered very 
sensibly, I wished him to tell me, wheth er his 
state of slavery was not disagreeable to him, and 
whether he would not gladly exchange it for his 



166 


liberty ?” “ Massah,” said lie, looking serious¬ 
ly upon me , Ci I have wife and children j my 
raassah lakes care of them, anti I have no cara 
to provide any thing j I have a good massah, 
who teach me to read j and I read good book, 
that makes me happy.” “ I am glad,” replied 
1, “ to hear you say so ; and pray what is the 
good book you read ? M The Bible, massah; 
God’s own good book.’' “ Do you understand, 
friend, as well as read this book ? for many can 
read the words well, who cannot get hold of the 
true and good sense.” “ O massah,” says he, 
“ 1 read the book much before I understand ; but 
at last I found things in the book which made 
me very uneasy.” Aye,” said ii, “and what 
things were they ?” “Why massah, l found that 
I was a sinner, Massah, a very great sinner, I 
feared that God would destroy me, because I was 
wicked, and done nothing as I should do. 
God was holy, and I was very vile and naughty; 
sol could have nothing from him but fire and 
brimestone in hell, if I continued in this state.” 
In short, he fully convinced me that he was 
throughly sensible of his errors, and he told me 
what scriptures came to his> mind, which he had 
read, that both probed him to the bottom of his 
sinful heartland were made the means of light 
and comfort to his soul; I then inquired of him, 
what ministry or means he made use of and found 
that his master was a Quaker, a plain sort of 
man who had taught his slaves to read, and had 
thus afforded him some means of obtaining reli¬ 
gious knowledge, though he had not ever con¬ 
versed with this negro upon the state of his soul. 
1 asked him likewise, how he got comfort under 
all his trials ? ‘*0 massah,” said he, “ it was 

God gave me comfort.by his word. He bade me 



167 


come unto him. and he would give me rest, for I 
was very weary and heavy laden.” And here he 
went through a line of the most striking texts in 
the bible, shewing me, by his artless comment 
upon them as he went along, what great things 
God had done in the eourse of some years for his 
soul. Being rather more acquainted with doc¬ 
trinal truths, and the analogy of the bible, than 
he had been, or in his situation could easily be, 
I had a mind to try how far the inclining grace 
ofGoD, encouraged by a willing, diligent, and 
obedient mind, had produced that knowledge ne¬ 
cessary to salvation* I therefore asked him se¬ 
veral questions about his notions of sin, the na¬ 
ture and power of God’s graee, and the insuffi¬ 
ciency of his works alone , however necessary 
when joined with a reliance on Jesus Christ, 
His artless unaffected language, his mild yet ex¬ 
pressive discourse, discovered a heavenly dispos¬ 
ed mind, and perfectly charmed me. On the o- 
tlier hand, my entering into all the satisfactions 
he had described, together with an aceonnt to 
him, which he had never heard before, that thus 
and thus God in his mercy dealt with all his 
children, and had dealt with me, drew streams ol 
joyful tears down his black face, so that we look¬ 
ed upon each other, and talked with that glow of 
ehristian affection, that made me more than ever 
believe, what I have often too thoughtlessly pro¬ 
fessed to believe, the communion of saints, 
viz. that sympathy of heart and soul which unites 
& endears good people toeaeh other. 1 shall ne¬ 
ver forget how the poor excellent creature seem¬ 
ed to hang upon my lips, and to eat my very 
words, when l enlarged upon the bounty and len¬ 
der mercy ofGoD, the frequent and delightful 
sense ha gives of his presence by the refreshings 



168 


of a quiet conscience, and the composure of a 
tranquil mind ; the faith he bestows in his promi¬ 
ses to those who labour to obtain it, and use 
what means are afforded them for that purpose ; 
the victories this faith enables them to get over 
trials and temptations ; the joy and peace in thus 
believing th» hope in life and death, and the 
glorious expectation of immortality (of being 
raised from the dead, to die no more.) To have 
taken off his eager, delighted, animated air and 
manner, would have beeu a master-piece for a 
painter. He had never heard such discourse, 
nor found the opportunity of hearing it before 
He seemed like a man who bad been thrown into 
a new world, and at length had found company. 
Though my conversation lasted at least two or 
three hours, 1 searee, ever enjoyed the happy 
swiftness of time so sweetly in all my life. We 
knew not how to part. He would accompany me 
as far as he might ; and I felt, for my part, such 
a delight in the artless, solid, unaffected, sensible 
talk of this good soul, that 1 could have been 
glad to see him often then, or to see his like at a- 
ny time now. But my situation rendered this 
impossible. I therefore took an affectionate 
adieu, with a kindness equal to the most ancient 
friendship, telling him that neither the colour of 
his body, nor the condition of bis present life, 
could prevent him from being my brother in our 
common father j that though we must part now 
never to see each other again any more in this 
world, 1 had no doubt of our having another joy¬ 
ful meeting in our Father’s home, where we 
should live together, and love one another 
throughout a long and a happy eternity, “Amen, 
Amen, ray dear massah j God bless you* and 
poor me too, forever and ever,” If I had been 



169 


an angel from heaven he could no* have receiv¬ 
ed me with more evident delight thau he diJ ;— 
norcou.d I have considered him with more re¬ 
gard, if he had been a long known Christian of 
the good old sort, grown up into my aft'eetions in 
the course of many years.*’ 


This story shews us that God despises not la¬ 
bourers on account of their poverty, nr negroes on 
account of their colour. 

It shews us that religion, and that only, will 
make a man content and comfortable in the low¬ 
est situations. 

It testifies the value of the bible, which ap¬ 
pears to have been the means of doing so mueh 
service to this poor negro, by the grace of God 
assisting his diligent application to it. 

Perhaps it may serve to fill us Englishmen 
with shame when we reflect, that with all our 
great and superior advantages, our knowledge 
and obedienee are far from being equal to what 
seems to bave been the case with this poor but 
virtuous negro. 

P 



\ 




NEW HISTORY 


OF A 

TRUE BOOK. 


1 The Bible is the Book of God, 

Which he alone conld framf ; 

A little Child may learn to prove 
It answers to it’s name. 

2 The great Jehovah it reveals, 

So glorious and so good ! 

So much of God, tho’ God could te 11 
No other being could. 

8 The wisest men, that never saw 
This book, when they have try’d 
The character of God to draw, 

His glories have deny’d. 

4, Some made a spotted Bull their God 
And some to Serpents pray'd ; 
Idols Qf metal, stone, or wood, 

They call’d upon for aid. 



172 


5 The Bible shews one God alone ; 

Right reason joins in this : 

Tho’ reason now in fallen man 
The glorious truth wight miss. 

6 First., best, and greatest, cause of all; 

A character complete 1 
How glorious is Jehovah’s name, 

Where all perfections meet ! 

V This book contains his holy law, 

Th’ eternal rule of right; 

How happy must all creatures be, 

Would they herein unite. 

8 All duty in one word is summ’d, 

That one sweet word is “ love,” 

How short, how holy, just, and good 
May I this law approve! 

9 u To him, w ho is supremely good, 

Supreme affection’s due : 

Deal by your neighbour as you’d havs 
Your neighbour deal by you. 

10 None else but God, who knows the heart, 

This sacred book could pen, 

Which does detect the inward thoughts 
And secret lusts of men. 

11 But what avails to know our ail, 

Unless we know the cure ? 

This is a m°lancholy tale, 

That endless woe is sure. 

12 Can none escape the wrath of God ? 

•dre all condemn'd to hell ? 



173 


Who can but dread that dark abode ? 

Who can with devils dwell ? 

13 The same blest book reveals the way 
To life above the skies ; 

The very chief of sinners may 
Receive so rich a prize. 

il Will God revoice his firm decree , 

That he who sins must die ? 

And disannul his law for me, 

And lay his anger by ? 

15 His law can never be repeal’d, 

It is too just and good : 

Better a thousand sinful worlds 
Should perish than it should. 

16 But how can sinners satisfy 

The law which once they broke ? 

Will penitence for payment stand, 

And so keep off the stroke ? 

17 No, all the sinner’s efforts here 

Would fruitless be and vain : 

Nor streams, nor floods of flowing tears, 
Could wash away the stain. 

48 A surety must be found, to pay 

The debt which sinners ow’d ; 

He must the holy law obey, 

And bear our heavy load. 

49 But where shall such an one be found ? 

What creature is so kind, 

Of all who dwell on earthly ground : 

" Or what angelic mind ? 

P 2 



174 


30 Mankind are all involved in sin ; 
Nor would an angel dare 
So great a work to undertake, 

Or such a load to bear. 

21 No ereature truly can suffice ; 

But God's eternal son, 

For this descended from the skies, 
And put our nature on. 

32 Jesus, I say, th’ incarnate word, 
Did all the law obey ; 

And thus its honour was restor'd. 
Which sinners took away. 

23 He bore his people’s countless sins, 

And dy’d that they might live ; 
And all poor sinners shall be sav'd. 
Who in his name believe. 

24 Had God the Son more love to man 

Than God the Father had ? 

Or did he come to die because 
He thought the law too bad ? 

25 No ! God so lov’d a ruin'd world 

He sent his son to die; 

Then rais'd him up again, to sit 
On his right*hand, on high. 

26 Christ meant to magnify the law, 

And ransom sinner's too : 

He dy’d that we, with joy and awe. 
Might grace and justice view. 

97 Now God is just, yet justifies 
Eaeh sinner who believes, 



175 


Sin is condemn’d, the law secur’d, 

God all the praise receives. 

2S God’s glory highly is advanc’d. 

And peace on earth proclaim’d ; 
Good will is shewn to sinful men, 

From Satan thus reclaim’d. 

29 We ought, indeed, with rapt’rous joy, 

To hear this joyful sound : 

Eut, Oh ! in our apostate race, 

What wickedness is found ! 

30 All men are so in love with sin, 

They will not from it part, 

T*5or let the blest redeemer in 
To their ungrateful heart. 

31 A free salvation they despise ; 

They scorn to be I'orgiv'n ; 

This empty world they idolize, 

And have no taste for heav*n. 

32 Will none then own tlieir wretched state , 

And humbly sue for grace? 

No, not till God renews the miud, 

And doth his pride abase. 

33 Thus we as much God’s spirit need, 

Our spirits to renew. 

As that his son for us should bleed, 

To give the law its due. 

.1* And can the spirit by his pow'r. 

Renew the man afresh ? 

Yes ; he removes the heart of stone, 
And gives a heart of flesh. 



35 Are none so good but what they need 

An interest in his grace ? 

Not one by any other means 
Can see the jather’s face- 

36 Are none so bad, but that he can 

Their load of guilt remove ? 

There is no limit to his pow’r, 

No limit to his love. 

37 When did the saviour condescend 

To die for wretched man ? 

It was about four thousand years 
Since time on earth began. 

38 Near eighteen hundred years are past 

Since Jesus Christ was seen, 

On Jewish ground, in mortal flesh, 
Appearing poor and mean. 

39 No worldly pomp did he assume ; i 

He did false greatness scorn ; 
Conceiv’d in a poor Virgin’s womb, 
And in a stable born. 

40 He past for humble Joseph’s son, 

But was the son of God ; 

The earth itself might well be proud 
That he upon it trod. 

41 He once a carpenter was call’d, 

Who built the earth and skies : 
Proud men would not their maker own 
In such a low disguise. 

43 How could they think that this was He, 
The Saviour all divine ? 



177 


Strange that his Godhead was not known 
By some undoubted sign ! 

4S The Saviour did not eome to reign, 

In gaudy pomp below ; 

But the law’s honour to maintain, 

Aud God's free love to shew. 

44 He came to cleanse away our sins, 

By his most preeious blood ; 

And liv’d, and dy’d, and rose again, 
For our eternal good. 

45 Longtime before, had God foretold 

His advent and design ; 

Which all the prophets witness'd to, 
Inspir’d by light divine, 

46 They nam'd the nation, trite, and race, 

From which he should descend ; 

Said Bethi’em was his native place j 
Shew’d how his life should end. 

47 The antient prophets now were dead ; 

The Jews their tombs adorn’d : 

But him, to whom those witnessed, 
They all abhor’d and scorn’d. 

48 Thus they who kept the prophecies, 

Those prophecies fulfill’d, 

Rejected Him. the prince of life, 

And crucify'd and kilL4. 

49 They hop’d a king with mighty pow’r. 

And purple for his robe. 

Would elevate their nation high 
Above a conquer’d globe. 



178 


50 Victorious arms, triumphal cars, 

Sceptres, and crowns, and thrones, 
Guards, Courtiers, Palaces, and Feasts, 
And gold, and precious stones. 

51 Such pompous baubles fill’d their minds ; 

These tokens, they expect, 

Must point the great Messiah forth ;— 

So Jesus they reject. 

52 No crown of gold the Saviour wore: 

They crown’d him, once, with thorn 
No sceptre, in his hand, he bore ; 

They gave a reed, in scorn. 

53 He had no place to lay his head, 

Much less n palace proud ; 

Was hungry, thirsty, hard-bestead. 

His guards a vulgar crowd., 

54 His steps poor fishermen attend, 

With neither place nor pay ; 

Nor had he ready cash, at hand. 

The tribute to defray. 

55 The shameful Cross he made his throne, 

And there resign’d his breath ; 

The sepulcre was not his own. 

Which held him after death. 

56 O who eouid think this low disguise 

Conceal’d Heaven’s glorious Lord, 

By hosts angelic ; in the skies, 

Surrounded and ador’d, 

57 His throne is heav’n; his footstool earth : 

fai robes of light array’d j 



179 


Clouds are his car ; his thundering voice 
Makes all the earth afraid. 

58 They best his boundless riches know 

Who live with him, above, 

Where springs of bliss for ever flow, 
Aud banquet on his love. 

59 Immortal honours, endless joys, 

He for his saints prepares ; 

Made, by him, kings and priests to God, 
His children and his heirs. 

60 His birth seem’d mean on earth below ; 

But Angels, at it sang ; 

While all the firmament around 
With heav’nly music rang. 

@1 The Jews tlieir new-born prince disown 
But wise-men from afar, 

To visit our redeemer came, 

Conducted by a star. 

«2 No flatt’ring nobles cring’d around ; 

But patients, whoapply’d, 

Healing for soul and body found, 

Nor once was one deny’d, 

63 He made the dumb his praises sing ; 
The lame, for joy to leap -j 
His word restord the blind to sight, 

And wak’d the dead from sleep. 

44 No armed guards, nor gaudy slaves. 

His followers were made : 

But health and sickness, life and death, 
His patent word obey’d* 



180 


65 The cruel devils, at his word, 

Were forc’d to quit their prey ; 

Death and the grave confess’d their Lord, 
And durst not disobey. 

66 He not on fine wrought carpets trod, 

Eut walk’d upon the sea ; 

Th’ obedient waves confess the God, 

And the tam’d winds agree. 

67 Thousands, repeatedly, were fed, 

When Jesus made the feast. 

He pray’d, and a t'ew loaves of bread 
Supply’d a full repast. 

IS Tribute from him when men demand, 
Obedient to his wish. 

The sea conveys it to his hand, 

And sends it by a fish. 

69 Ev’n in'his death his glory shines : 

The sun, in black array'd, 

Abhors the monst’rous crime, which makes 
The trembling earth afraid. 

70 Tlio’ men, ungrateful and unjust, 

His agonies deride, 

The rocks were rent, the graves were burst, 
When Jesus groan’d and dy'd. 

71 Boast, O devouring grave, that he 

Was once thy captive made j 
Or, rather, own thy conqueror, 

Who did thy realms invade. 

72 The king of terrors lost his sting, 

When Christ, triumphant, rose ; 



181 


And now bis dying saints may sing, 
And smile at all their foes* 

73 To chosen witnesses, he prov’d 

His resurrection clear ; 

Their former cowardice remov’d, 

And banish’d all their fear. 

74 Endu’d with power from on high, 

They publish’d in his name, 

Pardon for souls condemn’d to die, 

To all where’er they came. 

75 Unlearn’d before, with ready still, 

They speak with different tongues ; 
They use no arms, but faith and love, 
And patience under wrong?. 

76 Their doctrine they confirm’d by signs, 

Wrought all among their foes, 

And miracles of power divine, 

Which no one could oppose. 

77 Lite sheep amidst a host of wolves, 

They venture undismay’d .* 

For God they act} for God they bear 
The suff’rings on them laid, 

78 Their lives, all holy, well confirm 

The doctrines that they preach ; 
Their constant deaths, as plainly prove 
The blessed truths they teach. 

79 And still, by earth and hell oppos’d 

These truths maintain their ground \ 
Their blest effects from age to age, 

By thousands have been found. 

Q 



182 


$0 Satan has vary’d hia assaults, 

But never could prevail; 

The Church is founded on a rock, 

A rock which cannot fail. 

SI The Jews, who, for their unbelief, 

Were scatter’d all abroad, 

Are kept from all the world distinct, 

And shew the truth of God. 

S3 Bnt Christians know the sweetest sign 
To prove the Bible true, 

Who feel its energy divine 
Their passions to subdue. 

88 O that the spirit may impart 
This heavenly light to me : 

That I may feel a soften’d heart, 

And God’s own glory see. 

84 My soul thereon shall daily feed, 

Nor honey taBte so sweet; 

Thy precepts, Lord, my steps shall lead, 
Tbv promise be my meat. 

85 Thy statutes here shall be my song, 

While I remain below. 

Till I shall join the blissful throng 
Who in thy presence bow. 

*a For when my heart and flesh shall fail, 
Thy word shall steadfast stand : 

Thy saints thy faithfulness shall tell 
To all th’ ftDgelic band. 



THE 


SORROWS OF YAMBA, &c. 

To the Tune of Hosier’s Ghost. 

Parts of this very affecting Hymn might, with uti¬ 
lity, be read to our servants , to teach them thank¬ 
fulness for the advantages they enjoy, as to 
the knowledge of Christianity over the hea¬ 
then, and to reconcile them to their poor estate; 
and the whole of it ought to be read with great 
interest by the friends of humanity. 

“ IN St. Lucie's distant isle, 

Still with Afric's love I burn ; 

Parted many a thousand mile, 

Never, never to return. 

Come kind death and give me rest, 

Yamba has no friend but thee ; 

Thou can’si ease my throbbing breast, 

Thou canst set the prisoner free. 

Down my cheeks the tears are dripping, 
Broken is my heart with grief ; 



184 


Mangled my poor flesh with whipping. 
Come kind death ! and bring relief. 

Born on Afric’s golden coast, 

Once 1 was as blest as you ; 

Parents tender I could boast, 

Husband dear, and children tod* 

Whity man he came from far, 

Sailing o'er the briny flood, 

Who with help of British Tar, 

Buys up human flesh and blood. 

With the baby at my breast 
(Other two were sleeping by) 

In my hut I sat at rest, 

With no thought of danger nigh. 

From the bush at even tide 

Rush’d the fierce man-stealing crew ; 

Seiz'd the children by my side. 

Seiz’d the wretched Yarnba too. 

Then for love of filthy gold 

Straight they bore me to the seas 

Cram’d me down a-slave ship’s hold, 
Where were hundreds stow’d like me. 

Naked on the platform lying, 

Now we cross the tumbling wave$ 

Shrieking, sickening, fainting, dying. 
Deed of shame for Britons brave. 

At the savage Captain’s beek 

Now like brutes they make us prance : 

Smack the cat about the deck, 

And in scoru they bid us dance. 



Nauseous horse-beans they bring nigb, 
Sick and sad we cannot eat; 

Gat must cure the sulks they cry, 

Doivn their throats we’ll force the meat, 

I in groaning passed the night, 

And did roll my aching head y- 
At the break of morning light, 

My poor child w r as cold and dead. 

Happy, happy, there she lies, 

Thou shalt feel the lash no more. 

Thus full many a negro dies 
Ere we reach the destin’d shore. 

Thee, sweet infant, none shall sell, 

Thou hast gained a wal’ry grate ; 

Clean escaped the tyrants fell. 

While thy mother lives a. slave. 

Briven like cattle to a fair, 

See they sell us young and old ; 

Child front Mother too they tear, 

A ll for love of filthy gold. 

I was sold to massa hard; 

Some have raassas’ kind and good ; 

And again my back was scarr’d, 

Bad and stinted was my food. 

Poor and wounded, faint and siek, 

All exposed to burning sky j 
Massa bids me grass to pick, 

And Ittow am near to die. 

What and if to death he send me, 

Savage ‘ho* U-be, 



286 


British law shall ne’er befriend me, 
They protect no slaves like me,” 

Mourning thus my wretched state, 
(Ne’er may I forget the day) 

Once in dusk of evening late 
Far from home I dared to stray 

Dared, alas ! with impious haste 
Tow'rds the roaring sea to fly ; 

Death itself I longed (o taste. 

Long’d to cast me in and die. 

There I met upon the strand 
English Missionary good, 

He had bihle book in hand, 

Which poor me no understood. 

Led by pity from afar 

He had left his native ground $ 

Thus if some inflict a scar, 

Others fly to cure the wound. 

Strait he pull’d me from the shore, 

Bid rae no self-murder do ,• 

Talk’d of state when life is o’er, 

All from bible good and true. 

Then he led me to his cot, 

Soothed and pitied all my woa ; 

Told me ’twas the Christian’s lot 
Much to suffer here below 

Told me then of God’s dear Son, 
(Strange and wond’rous is the story f) 

What sad wrong to him was done, 

Tho’ he was the Lord of GJory. 



187 


Told me too like one who knew him, 
(Can such love as this be true ?) 

How he^died for them that slew him 
Died for wretched Yamba loo. 

Freely he his mercy proffered. 

And to sinners he was sent : 

E’en to Massa pardon’s offered : 

O if Massa would repent ! 

Wicked deed full many a time 
Sinful Yamba too hath done ; 

But she wails to God her crime, 

But she trusts his only Son. 

0 ye slaves whom Massas beat, 

Ye are stained with guilt within; 

As ye hope for mercy sweet, 

So forgive your Massas’ sin. 

And with grief when sinking low, 

Mark the road (hat Yamba trod 

Think how all her pain and woe 
Brought the captive home to God. 

Now let Yamba too adore 

Graeious Heaven’s mysterious plan $ 

Now I’ll count mv mercies o’er, 

Flowing thro’ the guilt of man. 

Now I’ll bless my cruel capture. 

(Hence I’ve known a Saviour’s name) 

Till my grief is turn’d to rapture, 

And I half forget the blame. 

But tho’ here a convert rare 

Thanks her God lor grace divide, 



18-8 


Let not man (he glory share, 

Sinner, still the guilt is thine.' 

Here an injured slave forgives, 

There a host for vengeance ery : 

Here a single Yamba lives, 

There a thousand droop and die. 

Duly now baptiz’d anr I 
By good Missionary man ; 

Lord my nature purify 
As no outward water cau 1 

All my former thoughts abhori’cT 
Teach me now to pray and praise ^ 

Joy and glory in my Lord, 

Trust and serve him all my days. 

Y/orn indeed with grief and pain, 
Death I now will welcome in ; 

0 the heavenly prize to gain 1 
O to ’seape the power of sin ! 

True of heart and meek and lowly, 
Bure and blameless let me grow ! 

Holy may 1 be, fur holy 
Is the place to which I go. 

But tho’ death this hour may find me, 
Still with Afrits love I burn , 

(There I’ve left a spouse behind me) 
Still to native land I turn. 

And when Yamba sinks in death. 

This my latest prayer shall be, 

■While I yield my parting breath, 

0 that ,9/ric might be free. 



180 


Cease, ye British sons of murder ! 

Cease from forging Afrie’s chain ; 

Mock your Saviours name no further, 

Cease your savage lust of gain. 

Ye that boast te Ye rule the waves,” 

Bid no slave ship soil the sea. 

Ye that “ never will be slaves ,” 

Bid poor Afrie’s land be free. 

Where ve gave to war it’s birth, 

Where your traders fix'd their den B 

There go publish “ Peace on earth” 

Go proclaim " good will to men” 

Where ye once have carried slaughter, 

Yice, and slavery, and sin ; 

Seiz’d on husband, wife, and daughter,. 

Let the gospel enter in. 

Thus where Yamba’s native home. 

Humble hut of rushes stood, 

Oh if there should chance to roam 
Some dear Missionary good ; 

Thou in Afric’s distant land, 

Still sbalt see the man 1 love; 

Join him to the Christian band, 

Guide his soul to realms above. 

There no fiend again shall sever 
Those whom God hath join’d and blest; 

There they dwell with him forever, 

There "the weary are at rest.” 

We rejoice to think that such prayers as the 
foregoing have been heard, and that in this eoun- 



190 


try, as well as in England, this horrid traffic is 
abolished, and that societies are now instituted 
for the purpose of propagating Christianity 
throughout Africa, and for ameliorating the con¬ 
dition of this suffering part of the human family, 
in the West-ludia Islands. 


THE 


COMFORTS OF RELIGION. 


O blest religion, heavenly fair 1 
Thy kind, thy healing pow'r ; 

Can sweeten pain, and soften care, 

And gild each gloomy hour. 

# Tis thou canst make the heathen blessed, 
And make their darkness light j 

Cheer'd by thy blessings gee them rise, 

To hope, to life, and light, 

? Tis Thou ean’st sooth their troubled soul* 
In slavery, woe, and pain ; 

And Afric’s sons with grateful joy, 

Tby sacred peace shall gain 1 

When dismal thoughts, and boding fears, 
The trembling heart invade ; 

And all the face of nature wears, 

A universal shade , 




191 


Thy saered dictates can assuage/ 

The tempest of the soul ; 

And ev’ry fear shall lose its rage, 

At thy divine control. 

Thro’ life’s bewilder'd darksome way, 
Thy hand unerring leads; 

And o’er the path, thy heav’nly ray 
A cheering lustre sheds. 

When feeble reason, tir’d and blind, 
Sinks helpless and afraid ; 

Thou blest supporter of the mind, 
How pow’rful is thy aid 1 

O let my heart confess thy pow’r, 

And find thy sweet relief : 

To brighten ev’ry gloomy hour s 
And soften ev'ry grief, 


A HYMN 


ON 

death and eternity, 

SUITED TO THE FOREGOING OCCASION. 

Stoop down, my thoughts, that use to rise, 
Converse awhile with death; 

Think how a gasping mortal lies, 

And pants away his breath. 



192 

His quiv’ring lip hangs feebly down, 
His pulses faint and few ; 

Then speechless, with a doieful groan, 
He bids the world adieu. 

But oh ! the soul that never dies ! 

At once it leaves the clay ! 

Ye thoughts, pursue it where it flies, 
And track if swond*rous way, 

Up to the courts where angels dwell 
It mounts, triumphant there : 

Or devils plunge it down to hell. 

In infinite despair. 

And must my body faint and die ? 

And must this soul remove ? 

Oh ! for some guardian angel nigh. 

To bear it safe above. 

To my Creator’s faithful hand, 

My naked soul 1 trust; 

And my flesh waits for thy command, 
To drop into jny dust, 



193 


THE ALL-SEEING GOD. 

Almighty God, thy piercing eye. 
Strikes thro’ the shade of night; 

And our most, secret actions lie, 

All open to thy sight. 

There’s not a sin that we commit, 

Nor wicked word we say ; 

But in thy dreadful book ’tis writ. 
Against the judgment-day. 

And must the crimes that I have done, 
Be read and publish’d there ; 

Be all expos'd before the sun, 

While men and angels bear ? 

Lord, at tlij foot asham'd I lie, 
Upwards I dare not look $ 

Pardon my sins before I die, 

And blot them from thy book. 

Remember all the dying pains 
That my redeemer felt ; 

And let his blood wash out my stains, 
And answer for ray^guilt. 

G may I dow for ever fear 
T’ indulge a sinful thought ; 

Since the great God can see and hear, 
And writes down ev’ry fault. 

R 



194 


AGAINST LYING. 

O 'tie a lovely thing, for youth 

To walk betimes in wisdom’s way ; 

To fear a lie, to speak the truth, 

That we may trust to all they say. 

But liars we can never trust, 

Tho’ they should speak the thing that's true 

For he who does one fault at first, 

And lies to hide it, makes it two. 

Have we not known, nor heard, nor read, 
How God abhors deceit and wrong ? 

How Ananias was struck dead, 

Caught with a lie upon his tongue ? 

So did his wife Sapphira die. 

When she came in and grew so bold, 

As to confirm that wicked lie. 

Which just before her husband told. 

The Lord delights in them that speak 
The words of truth ; but ev’ry liar 

Must have his portion in the lake, 

That burns with brimstone and with fire. 

Then let me always watch my lips, 

Lest I be struck to death and hell ; 

Since God a book of reck’ning keeps, 

For ev’ry lie that children tell. 



A 


DIALOGUE. 


Sambo— Howdy brother Toney, I am glad too 
much for see you, I no see you for long time, I 
hope you well. 

Toney—is this Sambn ? Oh I glad for see you 
too brother, how you done this long time ? 

Sambo—Thank God, brother, I been well all 
the time I live up the country; and that I believe 
been five six year. 

Toney—Yes, I believe old master been dead 
more than five years, and after that you went up 
there soon. Well, brother, how you like living 
up the country, how you like cotton planting, you. 
got a good master, Sambo ? 

Sambo—Yes, thank God, brother Toney, my 
Master good, and I like up the country and cot¬ 
ton planting very well—you got a good Master 
Toney ? 

Toney—So, so, he do, he gives us victuals e- 
nough and good clothes, but he makes us work 
devilish hard. 

Sambo. Devilish hard ! what sort a talk is 
that, Toney, what you mean by such word, that 
no good ? 

Toney—Why what harm, Sambo, I hope yoa 
ns one them religious sort a praying negroes ? 



f96 

Sambo—I hope you no think it bard for work, 
Toney, when you say your master use you well. 
Every body ought to work t\\at can, and l suppose 
you no work harder than your fellow-servants. 

Toney—I can't say I do. 

Sambo—Well then, why you complain and say 
devilish hard. You know what devilish mean To¬ 
ney ? devilish is something wicked, I fear you 
use such words, you wicked too, Toney. 

Toney—What you call wicked, Sambo. 

Sambo—Why brother Toney, you know well 
enough what 1 mean, you know that be wicked 
for tell lie, curse and swear, thieve and such like 
things, you know it's sin against God. f hoped 
God had changed vour heart, and you had been 
one good man, and as 1 heard too, that many 
black people near you been converted, baptised 
and joined the church. 

Toney—O yes. Sambo, we have praying and 
singing, exhorting and preaching all around us, 
and some on our plantation, but 1 like none on it. 
I think I’m as good as them that make such a 
noise. Many that pray and ail that, be no better 
than we who make no pretence ;—they do bad 
things too with all their religion. 

Sambo—I’m very sorry to hear that them that 
been baptised do as bad as them that make no 
pretence to religion. Do they curse and swear, 
tell lie and steal, be they idle and ramble about 
for mischief ? 

Toney—I no like them, they be hypocrites. By 
and by they will all turn back again. This reli- 
gionforwhite men, not for negro. 

Sambo—Who tell you so, Toney ? 

Toney—Our overseer, he say all black people 
will go to the devil. 

Sambo—So they will, and the white people too 



if they no repent, and believe the gospel. The 
word of the Lord say. “Except ye repent, ye shall 
all perish.” May be your people give the over¬ 
seer a heap a trouble, stealing and no doing their 
work ;—and may be some pretend for be religious 
when ihey no be so, and the overseer find them 
out in some of their bad tricks, and he thinks as 
you, that they be all alike ; if he be wicked hinu 
self then he think, so for true. 

Toney—Hey Sambo, where you learn all this 
5 bout the gospel and repent;—who make you so 
wise, do you have preaching and praying, and 
all that up the country where you live f 

Sambo—Yes, Touey, we have preaching, and 
the Lord he bless the preaching to many black 
people, as well as the white j several of my fel¬ 
low servants, I hope, are converted and be good 
and faithful servants now'- 

Toney—What you call converted. Sambo, I 
know nothing about it. 

Sambo—I am afraidj.Toney, you no want for 
know. I am very sorry for you, I loved you al¬ 
ways, Toney. SVhen we came out of the ship I 
been glad that one gentleman buy us both, and 
when old master die and we been parted I very 
sorry, I should be glad for see you become seri¬ 
ous and thoughtful about your soul, you no live 
always, and when you die will be dreadful if 
yeu die in your sins. 

Toney—Die, I know I must die some time or 
other, but while 1 live I wish for joy all the plea¬ 
sure I can ;—time enough for talk about repent 
and die w hen I am old man. 

Sambo—But suppose you no live till you old, 
how then, do you see many men on your planta¬ 
tion that be old, and should you live old, you 
may then be hardened io sin, you no see old mea 



198 


very wicked ? Suppose now, Toney, you should - 
run away from your master and no come back a- 
gain till you be old, and no strong for work, do 
you think your master would care for you then ? 
If you should be that master, you would say, 
what you come to me for now ? when you strong 
for work, you keep out, now you sick and old you 
come home. Go again, you are no worth, begone. 
Well now, if you serve the devil all (he best of 
your days, and when you can’t serve him longer, 
then you come and call upon God for mercy, he 
may then say to you,“begone; I send my minis¬ 
ters, they tell you, I give you my gospel that call 
you, you no come ; you loved sin and all bad 
things ; now I will not hear you, so God say in 
Jiis word. 1 tell you Toney you had better think 
on your poor soul, now, before it be too late. 

Toney—Why Sambo, do you want me for leave 
off dance, and sing and frolic? hey, Sambo, I can’t 
leave them off, I love them too much ; besides, 
Sambo, I know nothing ’bout this gospel and 
praying and all these things. 

Sambo—I am so sorry for yoa Toney, I don*t 
know what I can say—you make my heart ache, I 
can’t help crying; poor Toney, I ain afraid you 
will harden your heart in sin so much, that God 
Almighty will some day strike you dead in the 
midst of your wickedness ;—then your poor soul 
will be lost, and you will be sent to hell with de¬ 
vils and damned spirits, then you will see your 
folly wheu it will be too late, then there will be 
no mercy for you. 0 think on these things now, 
while mercy may be had, before you drop into hell. 

Toney—What you cry for, Sambo, I am no 
such bad man as you think, I never kill any body, 
—I no swear, only when I am vex. 1 never steal 
only 9 . little now and then from master. True I 



193 

lave dance and frolic i are Sambo, it’s no harm, 
for make merry now and then. 

Sambo—I cant help crying when I think on the 
danger you’re in. Suppose you no so bad as some 
very wicked wretches, yet as you talk, you not 
only bad, but what Wiorse, you no see any need 
for turning to God, and you have no love for good 
things and good people . 

Toney—Is ne body good but them praying sort 
a people ? 

Sambo—No body win* allow themselves in such 
things as you plead for., can be good. Is it for 
tell lie, steal, swear, and! keep bad company. 

Toney—I tell you, Sambo, I never steal from 
any body but master, arad that no harm, if he no 
find it out; aud I never swear only when I vex; 
as for frolic and dance I love them for true. I 
no tell lie about it; but I ylon’t l°ve ibis praying 
and going to meeting. What have we blaek peo¬ 
ple for do with that ? the minister he never say 
any thing to us. 

Sambo—So Toney, you think it no harm when 
you steal from your master ; now I think it more 
harm than from moat any body else, and I will 
tell you why. Now, Toney, mind wbat I say.— 
lu the first place your master gave a great price 
for you, next place, he find yon in victuals and 
clothes, and then he give you land for plant, and 
most every day you have time for work for your¬ 
self, and then he trusts you with his things;—who 
can he trust but his servants ? so if you steal, you 
deceive him, and then you tell lie for hide it, and 
may be after all the fault is laid on your fellow- 
servants, and so they get punished for your fault, 
and get the ill-will of your master, and more than 
all, the word of the Lord say, “thou shalt not 
steal, and that a thief cannot enter the kingdom 



«f heaven.’* Now Toney, if your master be a. 
bad man and used you illj yet you must not steal 
from him ; the word of the Lord no say, if your 
master be a bad man you may steal; no,—good or 
bad, you must not steal ,—*bo thief can go to hea¬ 
ven. 

Toney—I no understand ’bout this book. I 
never heard such things as these. 

Sambo—Do you never go to meeting for hear 
the minister preach ? 

Toney—Yes, I go sometimes, but the minister 
never preach to we black people. 

Sambo—Why Toney, the minister preach to e- 
very body ; may be you think he no preach to the 
black people, because he no call upon you and say, 
black people I speak to you. The word of the 
Lord speak to every body alike, white people, 
black people, rich man* poor man, old man, and 
young man, & it say, “ Repent every one of you. 

Toney—Hey Sambo 1 I believe you be Parson, 
do you preach Sambo ? 

Sambo—I am very sorry, Toney, for see you so 
hardened and so careless ’bout your poor soul; no, 
Toney, I no parson ; I no preach, but my mind be 
quite changed from what it been when you and I 
live with old master;—then 1 thoughtmuch as you 
do now ; I loved frolic and dance, and Buch bad 
things ; but 1 thank God I have seen my folly, 
and though I don’t go to frolic and dance, I am 
much more happy than when I used for go with 
you to such places. 

Toney—You talk like some of our people;-they 
say now they be religious, they hate frolic and 
dance, as much as they once loved it, and talk a- 
bout being happy and all that, but I no under¬ 
stand’bout all these things. 

Sambo—Suppose you can’t understand how all 



201 


this be ;—some things you ean understand, and 
should you give your mind to these things, and 
pray Gqjl, the Lord would enlighten your mind 
and make you see and understand, and should you 
once see your danger, you could no rest till you 
believe in Jesus Christ, and find peace and com¬ 
fort in your soul. 

Toney—Some of our people fell a great deal 
’bout their danger, and 'bout the Lord enlighten¬ 
ing their hearts, and, bout believing in Jesus 
Christ, and a heap such things. 

Sambo.—Will you answer me two or three 
questions Toney ? 

Toney.—Yes, Sambo, I will. 

Sambo.—Well now, Toney, suppose you should 
die just now this minute j do you think you are 
prepared for that ? 

Toney.—I hope I shall live many years yet, 
Sambo. 

Sambo.—But you no answ r er my question. 

Toney.—I don’t know what I can say to that, 
I don t know if 1 be prepared to die ; my heart 
feel strange at such talk, Sambo ; I no like it. 

Sambo.—You say you don’t know if you be 
prepared to die, nor do you intend thinking, bout 
it till you be old man. Now Toney, I will tell 
you why jou have such thoughts. You never 
seriously consider w hat a dreadful thing it be for 
sin against God, yon no been much troubled about 
it. Some time you think, wtell, I must die some 
time or other, that make you uneasy ; so you put 
such thoughts away ; when any your people die, 
that trouble you but little while, cause you young 
and strong, and think you will not die yet, so you 
go dance and sing again, Then you think you 
can repent when you please, and that many worse 
than you. Now, Toney, mind what I tell you, so 



202 


long as'you think you can repent when you please 
so long will you ga on in your old ways; *tis the 
devil that puts such thoughts in your heart and 
keep you from repenting and turning to God. 

Toney—Why Sambo, how you know my 
thoughts, for true I thought just as you say. 

Sambo—Again, Toney you know very well 
that life is uncertain, you see young people die as 
well as old, and some die very suddenly, and you 
may die as well as any other young man, and sud¬ 
denly too, and might have no time for say so 
much as Lord have mercy, and so drop into hell 
at once. I once had such thoughts as you have 
now ; and if God had left me to myself, I should 
to this day been serviug the devil. But thank 
the Lord for his goodness he was pleased for 
bless the preaching of the gospel to my poor soul, 
which brought me for see that I had been doing 
wrong all my days, and that if 1 died in such a 
state I should certainly go to heii. 

Toney—Why, Sambo, you talk so serious and 
seem so sorry for me it make me feel strange. I 
never feel so in my life before ; I most wish I 
was like you, can't you tell me what I mu9t do f 

Sambo—I am but a poor creature for give ad¬ 
vice ; but I love you Toney, and shouLd be glad 
for see you become a good man. 

Tonev_I believe you do love me, and I al- 

wavs loved you, Sambo. I remember when old 
master die arid we been parted, my heart trouble 
me a long time. I wish, Sambo, you would tell 
me how I must pray and how I must repent and 
believe the gospel; for I never think upon these 
things in my life before. 

Sambo_I have no much time now for talk with 

you Toney ; I must go to the boat and see about 
unloading the cottou. But I would advise you 



203 


Toney, for pray the 'Lord for direction, and as 
for how you must pray, just pray as you can and 
the Lord will hear you when you pray with all 
your heart. I can stay no longer, but I beg you 
for think seriously upon what 1 have said to you. 
Sit down, Toney, and think over yonr whole life, 
and think which the best,—that you go on in sin 
and so at last go to hell, or turn to God and be¬ 
lieve in the Lord Jesus Christ, and so be happy 
in your soul while you live, and be prepared for 
heaven when you die, 

Toney—I thank you, Sambo, I will try and do 
as you say, and I hope you will pray the Lord 
forme; Farewell. 

Sambo—I hope I shall pray for you. Fare¬ 
well. 


PART II. 

Toney—Howdy, brother Sambo, I glad for see 
you. once more. 

Sambo—T thank you, brother Toney lam very 
well, bless God, I am very glad fur see you too, 
I hope yo.u’r well, 

Toney—Thank God brother, J am very well. 

Sambo—Well brother, have you been think up¬ 
on the things we talked about when we met last r 

Toney—O Sambo I hope 1 have reagon to re¬ 
member that talk while 1 live, and to thank God 
for putting into your heart for talk to me. 

Sambo—If it been of service to you I am ve¬ 
ry thankful. Now, Toney, tell me how it** 



204 


been with you, for ever since we parted my heart 
been strangely drawn out in prayer for you. 

Toney—Well brother, as you wish for know 
I will tell you* but some my thoughts been so fool¬ 
ish and 6ome been so bad, I most shamed for tell 
you. 

Sambo—Never mind, tell me all, and tell me 
first what yon think while I talk to you, then how 
you feel after that. 

Toney—*0 Sambo! I never feel so in all my 
life before. When you first began for talk to me, 
my heart most rise up against you. I think you 
turn fool you talk such nonsense; by and by 
when you seem so sorry for me, and tell me what 
I think, 1 feel shamed 1 talk so foolish to you, and 
been most think you been right, and if you beeu 
right, I know I must been wrong; and when you 
ask me suppose I die that minute; my heart trem¬ 
ble. I think upon my fellow servant, Joe, I dare 
say you remember him. 

Sambo—Yes, very well, he used been very wild 
then. 

Toney—Yes, he been very wild for true, him 
and me been to many frolic together. When some 
body talk to him bout religion, he always 
make game; he would say, its enough for white 
people to mind religion, he no care bout it. One 
day as we been work together in the rice-field, 
he been taken very sick and been obliged for leave 
his work and go to his house. When I done my 
task. I went for see him, soon as he-see me he cry 
out, 0 Toney, 1 shall die and go to hell ; sure 
enough J<*3 die that night ; his death trouble ine 
a little while, but it soon wear off again ; I hardly 
ever think upon Joe, till you talk to me, when it 
came fresh in my mind, and I think who know bat 
I may die like Joe. Well, soon after I leave 



205 


you, wicked thoughts come in my mind, I say, I 
don’t care, 1 will dance and sing. I will take 
pleasure, God Almighty no expect black man 
should belike white man beside, don’t white 
man dance and sing ; yes, and curse &Dd swear 
too, and’he no fear going to hell. I am no worse 
than other people. 

Sambo—These been bad thoughts indeed, the 
devil put these thoughts into your head. 

Toney—Yes I know that now, but I no think so 
then. However that night, I had a dream which 
frighten me most to deaths I dream 1 was very- 
sick and thought 1 was dying. I thought a man 
come to me and call Toney :—I say, sir ! he say I 
ain come for you, are you ready to go ? I say, go 
where, sir ? he say, go with me into tother world. 
I say, no sir, 1 no ready, I cant go ; but the mao 
say, you must go and that directly, God Almighty 
send for you. My heart strike me with such 
terror, I never feel in all my life before. I say to 
myself, this is Death. I must now die like poor 
Joe, in all my sins and go to hell. Now all your 
talk come into my mind. I now- remember every 
bad thing I did in all my life. I feel so confound*, 
ed I could not pray so much as Lord have mercy 
upon me. I saw I must be damned, and 1 think 
God so angry with me that the moment I die he 
would strike me down headlong into hell. I so 
frightenj I cry out, f) Sambo, what shall I.do ? 
This woke me and my heart tremble a long time, 
at last 1 found it had been a dream. 

Sambo—Well, Toney, how did this dream mnLe 
you feel ? 

Toney-—I feel like a condemned man ; 1 did 
not know what to do j it seem like something say 
to me, Toney, you have lost your soul, you can’t 
repent, you need not pray, God wont hear such a 



20d 

wicked man, you may as well go on your old way 
and get all the pleasure you can ; soon as you get 
home, go dance and sing and shake off this fool¬ 
ish nonsense, it been only dream. 

Sambo—O how cunning Satan is;—first he tell 
us, time enough to repent and turn to God ; then, 
if we get uneasy, he tell us now too late to pray, 
God * ill not hear. Satan mean by this to make us 
despair. He serve me just so ; but if God take 
hold of the heart, you cant find pleasure in sHch 
things as you did once, you no see them like you 
used to do. Well, how you make out ? 

Toney—© brother I cau hardly tell, my heart 
keen so troubled, I can hardly eat, or work, or 
know what i been about. You know we came to 
town in a big flat with rice ; well, before we got 
home, no being so careful as we should been, 
some how the flat got aground, so we lost most 
one tide; this make the overseer who been with 
us so vex that he curse every body. I never mind 
any body's cursing before, but now it frighten me. 
I never think cursing so ugly before, it make me 
feel strange all over. Well, I think, go to hea¬ 
ven or hell. I will never curse again Long as I 
live, my heart rise up against it. We loss so 
much time it been in the night before we got 
home. When I been going up to the negro houses, 
I hear the fiddle, they been dance in the driver's 
house. O brother, you cant tell how I been feel. 
Before, when I hear fiddle, I feel good, now my 
heart turn gainst it. I say to myself, Ah poor 
people ! you're dancing to hell : I go by fast as 
I could , when I come by uncle Davy’s house, I 
think I hear him pray. I go softly and listen, and 
O brother Sambo, I never hear such prayers in 
my life. Uncle Davy pray for master and mis¬ 
press and,childrcn;—he pray the Lord for convert 



207 


young master, and he thank the Lord that he o- 
pen master’s heart for let the minister come and 
preach to we black people; and he pray the Lord 
for bless the gospel to his fellow servants, 
that they may be converted, and then he thank 
the Lord for revealing Jesus Christ to him, such 
a poor sinner;—then he prays so heartily, that he 
and them that been baptized might be kept from 
evil, and that they might live peaceably and qui¬ 
et ; and then he pray very earnest, if any poor 
creature upon the plantation be in trouble for hi* 
sins, Lord carry on the work in his soul, till he 
find rest in Christ Jesus, and a good deal more 
like that. All this time my heart trouble me for 
true. It make me love uncle Davy, and wish I 
may be like him. 

Sambo—Did you never hear Davy pray before? 

Toney—O yes, many time, but I no mind if, I 
no understand it, I made game at his praying ; 
but I being going to tell you, soon as uncle Davy 
had done prayers 1 went home and my wife 
been out and the children asleep, I sit down and 
lament my case. I now seed myself the worst 
man in the world. G ! I thought I must be lost, my 
sins seem'd too great for God to pardon. By and 
by, Fanny my wife come home, I ask her where 
she been, she say she been to uncle Davy's house 
to prayers ; she say, I wish Toney, you beea 
there ; Isay, why ? she say uscJe Davy pray the 
Lord for us all, for master and all : O Toney, I 
wish you been like uncle Davy, he is one good 
man ; when he done pray for us, then he talk so 
good to us bout our souls it ma*e me love him 
true. I tell her I heard uncje Davy too, and ne¬ 
ver been so troubled in my life before, and that 
I now been determine, I would never live as I 
have done, but I heing such, a poor miserable sin*- 



208 


ner 1 could not pray, and what to do 1 did not 
know. My wife advised me for go and talk with 
uncle Davy and tell him bow I feel, aud he would 
tell me what foi* do. 

Sambo—That been good advice, Toney, that 
Fanny give you j—what a merey she did not op¬ 
pose you. Well did you go to Davy ? 

Toney—1 had just been laughing at uucle Da¬ 
vy’s praying and talking, before we went to town; 
I been shame for go. 1 think 1 will leave some 
my bad ways first, and be more serious, then I g© 
for tCU him. 

Sambo—Poor Toney, you did not know what a 
deceitful heart you had ;—you would first make 
yourself good, and then go to Davy for make you 
so; see, brother what a deceitful thing sin be, 
how it deceives us. Well how you go on ? 

Toney—Why, Sambo, it stem to me get worse 
and worse, I 6ee myself so bad I wonder God did 
not strike me dead, I see so plain that I deserve 
it, Tthink God would do right to send me to hell. 
Every day it come to my mind what you say to 
; I try for pray, sometime I can say a little, 
sometime I am afraid to speak, sometime my 
heart so hard and wicked I cant pray ,• one day 
I think why don’t God kill me like poor Joe ? 
who know may be he mind to spare me ; then 
again it came in my mind, he only let me live, 
for sin more and more, that it might be worse 
with me, cause I make game of the gospel, and 
do every bad thing more than any body. Then 
again I think upon God, that he make every bo¬ 
dy and every thing, the rice, the corn, the grass, 
and all the good things, what make me so wick¬ 
ed ? O! I wish hundred times I never been born, 
I sin so much gainst the Lord who been so good. 
Well,l go to uncle Davy and tell him all these 
things.) 



JOP 


Sambo—And what did Davy say to you ? 

Toney— Uncle Davy see me in such trouble 
he pity and pray for me, Uncle Davy one tine 
man, he know my case and he talk so good and 
kind and ask me this thing aud tother thing, till 
he make me tell every thing, all my heartthen 
he say he glad for see me in this trouble, he say, 
God at work with n?y hi art, he bid me go to 
meeting and pray God for direct the minister to 


my case. 3 

Sambo- Well, and did you go to meeting . 

Toney—O yes, I go to meeting next Sunday ; 
but I feel so bad as 1 been going, I most half 
mind turn back and go home again. However 1 
eo, and I would not miss that sermon for all 
things in the world. Such a sermon I never 
heard before. The minister take his text fro in 
these words— God be merciful to me a sinner. 
When the minister take his text he look so hard 
upon me,T sure he know what a sinner I been. 
I shall never forget that sermon. First, he shew 
what heart end what conduct a sinner have J 
then he shew how God can be merciful to sinners* 
and then what that mercy be. O Sambo, it been 
sueh a day to me, as never been before. 

Sambo— Well, how’ did the minister tell you 
sinners get their wicked heart, which make all 
their conduct wicked ? 

Toney—I will tell you as well as I remember. 
He say God make the first man, I think he say 
he name been Adam. Well, he say, he make him 
very good and holy, he have na sin; now Goil 
tell the man, he must mind and be very good and 
he would be very happy ; but he tell him if he 
dont miud what he say, but break (he law lie give 
him, he should die, aud as all men would eome 
frwm him, if he break the law, then he bring ulL 
8 3 



219 

men should die. Well, sure enough, he bfeeak th6 
Jaw, and now every body, said the minister, that 
is born into the world be bsrn sinners, with a 
wicked heart and as soon as they begin to talk 
and so on, they love do wrong, ’tis their very na¬ 
ture to do so, their choice. Now then he say, a 
sinner is one that has broken the law of God. 
And as a sinner he is under the curse of God, and 
as we are all sinners, we are all under the curse 
of God. O how my heart ache when he say that, 
for I feel myself under the curse of God. Well 
now he say, how come God not to condemn and 
send every body to hell ? How can God save poor 
man, and keep his word ? for God said, the soul 
that sins shall die, not only the body die, but the 
soul be sent to hell., 1 declare, Sambo, my heart 
tremble, when he say that, for 1 could see no 
way how God could keep his word, and save 
poor sinner. Well now, the minister say, I will 
tell you, and I pray the Lord you may under¬ 
stand and particularly you poor blaek people. I 
will speak as plain as I can, but you must pray 
to God that he make you understand it. Now 
when there was found no one that could save 
poor man, the Lord Jesus Christ, the Sou of God, 
say, Father, send me and I will save poor man ; 
well, how will he save him ? He say, I will be¬ 
come man, I will be born of a virgin, so I will 
have no sin, then I; will be both God and man; 
then I will keep the law that man broke, and as 
man must die for breaking the law, 1 will die for 
him, in his place. Now, Jesus Christ, being 
equal to his Father, all that he did was of more 
worth than all the men in the world could do.. 
Well, Jesus Christ w as born of a virgin, and so 
did not eome into the world a siuner ; he kept the 
law of God, aad he suffered and.died, the just for 



211 


the Hnjast, and as he was God as well as man hr 
raised up himself from the dead to be our Saviour, 
and justify us, and deliver us from punishment. 
Now, said the minister; what Jesus Christ did 
and suffered, make God willing to forgive poor 
man; now in this way, God can keep his word 
and the poor sinner be saved. Well, now God 
send his ministers to tell the people, he can par¬ 
don and forgive the poor sinner, and keep his 
word, his justiee and truth. Then you will gay, 
why are not all poor sinners saved ? I will tell 
you, before they can be saved, they must come to 
the Lord Jesus Christ; this they will never do 
while they love sin, nor till they feel themselves 
in a lost ruined state, and this they will never see 
till the spirit of God shew them their sin, and 
this he does many ways ; sometime by preaching, 
sometime by a godly friend talking, sometime one 
way and sometime another ; but I will tell you 
how you may know if the spirit of God is at work 
with you—if you feel sorry for sin and hate it, if 
your hearts are full of trouble about your souls ; 
—full of guilt and shame, and fear, and like the 
poor man in the text are smiting your breast and 
crying God be merciful to me a sinner. 

Sambo—Well, Toney, yon have a good memo¬ 
ry to remember all this, it must have reached 
your heart. 

Toney—O yes, Sambo, it reached my heart for 
true. 

Sambo—Well, how this sermon make you feel. 

Toney—O Sambo, it would be hard to tell. 
However it make me love the minister, though I 
no understand all he say, and I encourage still for 
pray. 

Sambo—>And did you now believe you must he 
aaved by what Jesus Christ had done ? 



212 


Toney—0 yes, the minister tell us there- eould 
be no pardnn only for what my Lord had done, 
and as soon as we believe with all the heart, ww 
should east ourselves on him, trust our souls with 
him, and he would make himself knewn to us, 
and we should find peace, and the minister charge 
us to go pray the Lord to have mercy on us for 
Christ sake. . 

Sambo—And did you do as the minister tell 
you ? 

Toney—Yes, over and over again. 

Sambo—And did you find peace? ^ 

Toney—No I no find for twepty times. 

Sambo—Well, what you do den ? Had you no 
mind for leave off prayer ? 

Toney—Yes an hundred times. 

Sambo—And how came you no leave it off ? 

Toney—0 Sambo, I eant leave it off, because I 
believe the word the minister tell me, he say, 
without faith in believing in Christ all the world 
eould not save me. So 1 think with myself, if I 
leave off prayer I loss for true, and I cau but be 
los6 if 1 pray. I go to uncle Davy and tell him 
all my trouble and beg him pray for me. 

Sambo—And what did Davy say to you ? 

Toney—He tell me that no body eould help 
me, that 1 most believe in Jesus Christ or 
1 would be damned j but he say, the word of 
the Lord is in your favour, for it say, “ come 
unto me all ye that labour and are heavy laden 
and I will give you rest.’* 

Sambo—Well, what you do then ? 

Toney—Do ? I know not what for do, I looked 
upon myself as a poor Iobs sinner. I had no bo¬ 
dy to blame but myself, and I often think I should 
drop into hell. However l continue for pray and 
begging for mercy, till one day the Lord enable 



213 

me to believe in Jesus Christ, and give me peace 
in my soul. 

Sambo—And how was that ? 

Toney—1 think it been the day we begin for 
plant rice. That day I felt bad too much, my . 
heart loo hard, my eip 7 look more worse than 
ever, 1 think that day nobody such a big sinner 
like me, O 1 dont know what for do. By and by, 

I think like somebody speak and say, “ believe 
in the Lord Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved.’ 1 
I say, Lord, I cant believe, Lord give me faith, 
then I hear this word, ** cast thy burthen on the 
Lord,” and that word in the hymn come in my 
mind —“ come hither, all ye weary souls, ye hea¬ 
vy laden sinners come.” O Sambo, these last 
words never seem so sweet before; they make 
me feel like I never feel in my life before. I now 
been see when my Lord die, he no die for himself, 
for him own sin, but for poor sinners j—then I 
cry, Lord, heje been one poor sinner, bad mora 
than any sinner, in the world. Lord save me or 
I perish. It seem like l now believe that Jesus 
was able and willing for nave just such a sinner 
as I been, I now think I see my Lord has done 
every thiog for the poor sinner. 0 now I see 
how rnueh I deserve hell, I say Lord if you send 
me to hell, I no say one word, but if you save 
me I will praise my Lord for ever and ever. O 
bow my heart feel light, my trouble all gone. O 
now I love my Lord, I love the good people, £ 
love every thing but sin, my heart rise up gainst 
that, 1 think 1 will never sin no more as long as I 
live. When I think how my Lord, suffer for sin¬ 
ners, I say, if my sin been so great, what must 
my Lord suffer for all them he save. O my 
heart sorry for my Lord when I think how it save 
poor sinuers. 01 been wish l could always feel 



214 


so. for now I been thank and praise my God for 
sending Jesus Christ to die for poor sinner would 
come to this precious Saviour. O Sambo, I been 
too happy, 1 say glory, glory to my God forever 
and ever. 

Sambo. Well brother, you been happy for 
true, you no tell Davy of this ? 

Toney. O Sambo, I tell most every body. I 
go to my master, 1 fall down on my knees, I say, 
G my master, Toney been one bad negro, I been 
curse and lie and steal and done every bad thing $ 
O my master forgive me, I hope I never do the 
like again, I hope I been see my folly I hope th® 
Lord pardon my sin. 

Sambo. And what did your master say ? 

Toney. Master say, Toney, I am glad to see 
this change in yon, I hope it is the work of the 
Lord ; I freely forgive you any thing in which 
yon may have wronged me. However, Toney, 
take care, the heart is very deceitful, watch and 
pray that you fall not into temptation, and a good 
deal more : he talk so good, it make me love him 
for true. I wish every poor negro been have such 
a good master. 

Sambo. Suppose you tell Davy too what he 
say to you ? 

Toney. What brother Sambo ? uncle Davy 
been most as glad as myself. He thanks and 
bless the Lord that he answer his prayer for me ; 
and tell me, now Toney, you have began a new 
life, the life of a Christian. Now you must be 
en your guard, the devil will try to trouble you 
every way he can, yon must therefore try and 
live near to God, by prayer and faith, watch your 
hear?, that you do not backslide from God, con¬ 
stantly pray to him to keep you by his grace 
from sinful thoughts, words and actions, and help ; 



215 


you to walk by faith and not trust to your own 
strength, and a good deal more like that. 

Sambo. Blessed be God for his goodness to 
you my brother, I praise God too, for hearing my 
prayer for you. When we were boys together I 
loved you, but now I love you with another sort a 
love, I now love you cause you love my Lord. 
Well, my brother, we been now Christ’s soldiers, we 
must fight the good fight of faith gainst every sin, 
and be careful for do every thing our Lord say in 
the book, then we have peace and comfort in our 
soul. Well now, brother Toney, I want you for 
answer two questions. 

Toney. With all my hearf, brother, if I ean. 

Sambo. Well, Toney, tell me, do you now 
think it no harm to steal from your master. 

Toney. O. no talk, brother Sambo, steal from 
master no harm ! that man no ehristian, his 
heart no changed, who ean think it no harm for 
steal from master or any body. 

Sambo. Very true, Toney, but I hear some 
black people say, though it beeu harm to steal 
from stranger, it been no harm to steal from mas¬ 
ter. 

Toney. 1 never ean think them people been 
converted who plead for stealing ; before I con¬ 
verted I been think it no harm to steal fiom mas¬ 
ter ; but now, bless the Lord, my mind -quite 
changed. Stealing be one great sin, for you know 
the word of the Lord say} no thief can go to hea¬ 
ven^ now, if 1 steal, no matter if from master or 
stranger, my heart no right with God. 

Sambo. You been right, Toney, I gree with 
you, Christian man no thief. Well, Toney, to- 
ther question is do prayers make you good and 
■carry you to heaven ? 

Toney. Hey, Sambo, what jou mean ? I never 



216 


bear such thing before ! 1 thank God he been help 
we for pray, and I pray the Lord every day for 
keep me, and lead me, and never leave me, for 
I still find myself one poor sinner, my heart 
some time have bad thought, some time devil 
temp me, some time 1 feel so bad I think no 
Christian like me, then I go to my Lord. I tell 
you Sambo, I love my Lord, I love good people, 
I loye good thing, but it all been come from my 
Lord. I hope God Almighty save me, and at last 
take me to heaven, but not for my prayers, but 
for what the Lord Jesus Christ been do for me, 
upon him I trust, he my Lord and my God. 

Sambo. Bless the Lord, my brother, you been 
understand these things so well, bv and by your 
mind will be more enlightened j beside, Toney, 
you must learn to read, then yon will understand 
these things more better. Well, Toney, what 
reason have we for praise the Lord. We two 
poor African negro, and both been wicked toge¬ 
ther a good while, and now God meet with us in 
love and mercy. I hope God will be with us and 
bless us & help us to live for his glory then by 
and by he will take us to heaven;—there we shall 
live with the blessed Lord Jesus Christ, And all 
his saints forever and ever. 

Toney—O Sambo, 1 often tbiuk, if, after all, I 
get to heaven, J shall have most reason of any 
body for praise God for his goodness for bringing 
such a poor sinner to salvation. Well, Sambo, 
1 must go, but I hope it no be long before I see 
you gen. I wish you could come at Chrismas 
time for see us,* uncle Davy, my wife and the 
brethren would all be glad too much for see you. 

'Sambo. Thank you, Toney, I will try for 
come. I hope you will pray for me ; remember 
me to Davy, your wife and all the brethren. 
Farewell. 



217 


Toney—You will pray for me and remember me 
to all your brethren. Farewell. 

PART 111. 

Sambo. Well, brother Toney, you see I keep 
my word. I have come for see you, and brought 
brother Tituswith me ; I hope you well. 

Toney—1 am very well brother, and very glad 
for see you, and more so as you bring a brother 
with you. I hope you well brother Titus. 

Titus—Thank God, brother, I am very wel!. 
Brother Sambo, when he return from town, tell 
me of you as one, who the grace of God wonder¬ 
fully meet when you been going on in sin ; this 
make me wish for see you, as I hope I love all 
good people. 

Toney.—Well, brother, 1 hope we been known 
one another more better before we part- Brother 
Sambo, I have good news for tell you ; since f 
see .you in town, some of our people I hope been 
converted. 

Sambo.—That good news for true. 

Toney—Well, brethren let us go to the house, 
Fanny will be mighty glad for see you, Sambo.— 
Fanny, this brother Sambo you hear me talk so 
much about. 

Fanny—Howdy, brother Sambo, I am very 
glad for see you for true: my husband tell me 
*tw T as you talk to him that first set him for seek 
the Lord; 1 been very thankful to you, brother, 
ever since, for that same night he come home, the 
Lord been take hold of my heart; if Toney no 
been taken hold on too, I don’t know how I 
would make out. 

Sambo. Bless God, sister, then I hope you go 
hand i« hand in the way of the Lerd, ’lis a bles~ 
T 



218 

sed thing when husband and wife both seek the 
Lord together. 

Toney. Here is uncle Davy, Sambo, 'tis so 
long since you see him, I suppose you hardly 
know him. 

Sambo, O brother Davy, how you do, 1 sure if 
I been meet you when I no expect, I would not 
know you, how you do ray brother. 

Davy. Why, bless the Lord, I am in good 
health, and right glad to see you. 

Sambo, This brother Titus, one of my fellow 
servants. 

Davy. I am glad to see you brother. 

Titus. I am glad to see you too brother, I of¬ 
ten heard of you as one that God been bless iu 
wakening some young men on this plantation. 

Davy. Why, thank God brother, I have been 
trying to stand by our minister, and sometimes 
talking a little and praying with our people ; and 
bless the Lord, at that time, some be enquiring a- 
bout Jesus Christ and I hope a few have found 
him. 

Titus. That good news, brother, it make my 
heart glad. 

Fanny. When I used for talk to Toney bout 
repenting and serving the Lord, Toney say, time 
enough, by and by, when I old man. Now the 
work of the Lord been come, J see old men no 
care for it; tis young people that think most 
bout it. 

Davy. Tis most always so, sister. Last Sun¬ 
day our minister tell us of some great minister in 
England, who had been preach a great many 
years, and see a great many converted, and he say 
the most were young people. 

Sambo Yes, I helieye when the Lord bless 
young people with the gospel, and they no get 



219 

converted, the Lord leave them for grow hard in 
sin. 

Toney I been bee under some sermons most e- 
very body take notice but a few old men, they no 
mind it. 

Sambo You no remember, Toney,when I talk 
to you, you say by and by when I old man ? 

Toney Yes, X remember very well, I then love 
sin and no want for part with it;—then I think 
there be no pleasure in religion; beside I think I 
can repent w hen 1 please. 

Titus. But when you make trial, you no find 
it so easv as jou think. 

Toney No, no. Dor 1 never make trial, if 1 no 
find myself a poor loss sinner. 

Fanny I sure I bless the Lord he take hold of 
your. heart, for my sake well as your own; for 
your heart been set against uncle Davy and all 
the good people, so you no let me go to sermon 
and prayers and such like. 

Titus. I dare say, brother Toney been glad 
too that the Lord take hold of your heart, for now 
he wife go with him and help him. 

Toney I always loved my wife, and now 1 
been love her more than ever. 

Sambo. Well, brother Davy, you be most old 
man, and you been converted good many year, and 
you read the word of the Lord, and you often been 
talk with ministers;.we then expect you will teach 
us ; 1 feel happy when I think I shall hear some 
good things from you. 

Davv. I am glad you come to see us with so 
good intention; i hope then you prayed the Lord 
to be with us ; as for teaching you, brother, I 
need teaching myself; how ever, I shall be wil¬ 
ling to talk with you on spiritual things, and tell 
you every thing I can. 



220 


Sambo. That very kind’, brother; then I hope 
we been have a good Crismus; for I love for talk 
bout Jesus Christ; as we come long, brother Ti¬ 
tus and me both pray the Lord be with us, when 
we come to the brethren. 

Titus. I should be very glad for bear brother 
Davy talk upon one thing;—I mean bout some peo¬ 
ple who seem to be awakened, and for some time 
seem engaged a good deal ;—they pray and talk 
Uout religion, leave oft' bad ways, go every Sunday 
to meeting, and seem like they would soon join 
the church;—aye, and some do join the church ; 
then by and by they turn right back into sin, make 
game and laugh at every thing serious. Now, 
brother Davy, I wish you would tell us bout such 
people. 

Sambo. Aye, brother Davy, I join brother Ti¬ 
tus for beg you to talk.upou that. 

Toney. Ishouid be glad to hear uncle Davy 
too. 

Fanny. And I sure I should, for many time I 
fear I shall turn back, 1 find so many wicked 
thought in my heart, and some time I cant pray', 
my heart so hard. I wonder many time if any 
Christian be like me. 

Davy. Well, ray brothers and sister, as you 
desire it, I will try and tell you something about 
these sort of people, for alas! there be too many. 
One sort be they who as soon as they hear the 
gospel, particularly that part which tells about 
the goodness of God in sending Jesus Christ to 
die for sinners and also to preserve the law and 
word of God, that God may be holy and just when 
he pardon the sinner, that God may appear op¬ 
posed to sin while he forgive sinners; 1 suy, when 
those sort of people hear all (his, and a good deal 
about heaven and the joys of the saints there, and 



m 

nil lliis being new ter them, their hearts are made 
glad, and some how they get a notion, because 
they feel their hearts light that they going to 
heaven. They sing and prayand talk with eve¬ 
ry body they meet, and^think all is well with them; 
These be the people that say Lord, Lord, but do 
not the will of God. 

Sambo. Yes, and for a while deceive many. 

Davy. Yes, but the worst is they deceive them- 
selves, for all this time their hearts are bad, they 
never had a right seose of sin ; then, by and bv, 
when they loose their comforts as they call them, 
that i*, when these things be no longer new, their 
hearts lean after their old w ays again, and not 
finding the same good feeling in prayer, nor ia 
hearing sermons, they by degrees leave, off praver, 
and find more pleasure in their old. ways, and so 
go back again. 

Titus. That time when they been seem most 
religious, they no been very serious, only at ser¬ 
mon ; other time they been laugh and talk fool¬ 
ish ; this shew their heart no been right. 

Davy. True my brother, they never know 
their hearts were deceitful ;—all they think upon 
was to feel good and happy ; when they cant ieel 
so any longer, then they get tired of religion and 
go back again to sin. Then some people say they 
fall from grace, when poor things they never knew 
any thing about grace. 

Sambu. Very true, brother, these people ne¬ 
ver know their heart wicked, that make they ne¬ 
ver go to Jesus Christ for pardon*—they satisfy 
with feeliug good when inini&tei preach,—that 
been all their religion, 

Fanny. Well, uncle Davy, I do no like these 
people,—my heart nu so;—I no spec for always for 
feel good, cant you tell u» of uother sort who go 
back? t 2 



222 


Davy. My dear sister, there be many sort* 
that go back, and but few that go right. We had 
need watch and pray,lest Satan, or our own hearts, 
deceive us. The word of the Lord say, “ Let 
him that think he stand take heed, lest he fall.” 
I will now tell you of another sort who turn back. 
They be them who believe if they go on in wick¬ 
edness they will be lost,—they believe God is just 
and will send them to hell, except they repent f 
this give them trouble, make them very fraid, now 
they leave oft'telling lie, cursing and swearing, 
stealing and all such bad thing, they pray, go to 
Sermon and seem very earnest, all the while this 
trouble last, but by and by when this trouble for 
fear of hell be gone, then they turn again to folly 
and sin. Now, brother Sambo, I dare say yon 
can tell us why they turn back, and how they go 
from one thing to another, till they get as bad as 
before they begin to pray. 

Sambo. Why, brother, I think I know a little 
bout it; but as you begin, I shall be glad you go 
on and tell us all bout it, for you more old in re¬ 
ligion than me, and so know more better about 
these things. 

Davy. Well, brother, I will go on with them; 
bow the main reason why such turn back, their 
heart never been changed. With all their trou¬ 
ble and fear of hell, their heart never been right 
with God. They be like a man at the court, 
when tried for his life; he fear he will be hang¬ 
ed ;—this make him sorry and repent; but if hd 
get clear he goes to stealing again. This shews 
he was not sorry for the sin, but his fear and 
trouble was about the punishment. Now then, 
when this fear and trouble leave them, they leave 
OB' prayer j then, by and by, they leave off going 
to sermoD» they then begin to find fault with 



223 


their brethren, and leave their company ; then 
they go among the wieked and laugh and joke 
with them ; then they go a little furder, till they 
harden their heart so much, that they no shame to 
do as bad as before trouble come upon them, and 
some time much worse; for they make game at 
the Christians and try to bring them into trouble 
with their master or overseer. 

Toney. I hope the Lord will keep us from 
turning back, for as the minister say last Sunday, 
the end of such men will be dreadful. 

Sambo. Well, brother Davy, I been think you 
lay off all these people very right; for I been 
think if they been truly converted they never 
been love sin again; if the heart no been change 
by the grace of God it will love sin ; nothing but 
that grace can cure the heart of sin ; they may 
talk, and talk bout the love of God, and such 
things ; bitt if the heart no change, by and by 
something come to try ther. } they been shew 
they be still in the bond of sin; but him whose 
heart been right with God, tho’ sometime all been 
seem w rong with him, and the wicked ones been 
bring him into trouble, aye, and for suffer too, 
will that been make him leave the Lord ? no, no, 
it been make him look bout him,—look into his 
heart,—look upon his conduct for see if all right; 
trouble make him go mere earnest to the Lord for 
direct hi m & help him,—he no run away into sin. 

Davy. Very true, brother, yon talk like a 
Christian, this bring my mind to think what hap¬ 
pen to one of my fellow servants, in old master's 
time. I will tell you how it was. Soon after we 
begin to hear about religion, the Lord take hold 
of Simon and me, I think it was the first sermon 
we hear. Well, we leave off our bad ways, and 
pray and talk to some of our people ; this make 



224 


piost every body gainst us ; now, first one, then 
another, would go to overseer with some tale to 
make mischief, and try to set the overseer gainst 
us. He was wicked and dont mind religion, ©- 
therwise he very clever man; Thess tales make 
him watch we two very close ; well, we be upon 
eur guard too ; I believe it was for our good 
but the wicked ones no mean it so. 

Titus. I suppose it make you stick more clos¬ 
er together and pray more earnest for the &.ord 
for help vmi.. 

Davy.’ Yes it did so. However, by and by 
somebody steal rice. I am sure nobody could 
steal for want of rice, for we then had our low- 
anee in small rice j beside most every body have 
rice of their own, for we all had land to plant, 
and most every day we done our task, time enough 
to work for ourselves. However the nee was 
stole, and some thought Simon Rteal it, and some 
things look like it might be Simon, but Simon tell 
me he no steal it, and beg roe to pray for him. 
Well, Simon was confined, and the overseer try 
hard to find the thief. At last, some of the rice 
was found in Simon’s house. The overseer dont 
know what to make of it,—-sometime he think it 
cant be Simon ; then agon the rice was found in 
his house, and some of the wicked ones say some¬ 
thing to make overseer think it must be him. I 
to Simon and tell him if he steal the nee, he 
better tell allabout it. Simon say, he no steal 
the rice for true, the Lord know I no steal it, 1 
know nothing bout it. Well, the overseer punish 
Simon. When he done,Simon say,overseer will you 
hear me talk? Overseer say, yes; Simon say, sir, 
you punish me for stealing ricejas you find it in my 
house,it look like I steal it,but 1 sure you I no steal 

it I know nothing bout it, my wife honest wo¬ 
man too, she no steal it,l never steal from any bo- 



225 


dy since that time I begin far pray ; you bo see, 
sir, ever since that time I begin for pray, brother 
Davy and me mind our work for master, and 
work for ourselves and trouble no body? And eve¬ 
ry time you call us, when we been work for our¬ 
selves we go, we never grumble; we never ramble 
about for mischief, we never go no where without 
ticket. I very sure somebody put the rice in my 
house for bring all this upon me,-I sorry for them;- 
one daylhope the thief be found,the Lord send this 
for try me—imon talk so good and so humble to 
the overseer, it touch his heart. Well, did this 
make Simon turn back ? No no, he pray for his 
enemy, he pray the Lord to give him repentance; 
and sure enough in two or three month, Tom come 
one day to Simon and fall upon his knees & say,— 
Simon ean you forgive me ? Simon say for what ? 
Tom say, O Simon ! I been steal the rice, and put 
some in your house when you been at meeting.— 
The devil got in my heart and help me to contrive 
all bout it. Yesterday when the minister preach, 
he look upon me so hard when he tell us bout the 
devil tempting the black people for make mischief 
inong their fellow servants, 1 sure he kuow I 
steal the rice My heart trouble me till I most 
dead, I spec God Almighty would strike me into 
hell. By and by, like somebody say to me, Tom, 
go tell Simon, he one good roan, he forgive you, 
and tell you how for repeut and turn to God.— 
Now Simon what shall 1 do ?- Simon talk to him 
go good, till his heart melt. Then he take him 
to master, and Tom tell master all about it; and 
Simon beg master nol to punish Tom this time, 
cause his conscience trouble him so much. 

Titus. Well, Simon do like a Christian for trne. 
I believe very few would done bo, and did your 
master punish Tom ? 



226 

Davy. Ne, he let him go this time for Simon’s 
begging for him, and sure enough, Tom become a 
sober honest man, and I hope a true Christian. I 
shall never forget what old master say about it. 

Sambo. What he say ? 

Davy. Say ? Why he say, Simon was to© 
good for live long in this world, and that Tom 
ought to pray for Simon as long as he live. After 
this old master used to say, he wished all his ser¬ 
vants were like Simon, Tom and Davy. 

Titus. Well brother Davy, Simon been one 
fine Christian, I wish we all had such a heart to 
forgive like him. 

Sambo. 1 wish so too, and we all ought for 
have such a heart. Every Christian prays God 
would forgive his sins as he forgives them that 
do wrong against him. If we no forgive, how 
can we spec we shall be Forgiven ? 

Davy. I will tell you of another man ; but he 
no like Simon. The minister tell me about him. 
The minister say, there was one man who run be¬ 
fore every body for a while Le was for praying 
at every meeting, and he talk to every body; he 
talk to white men like they were his fellow ser¬ 
vants, and hardly any body good enough for him ; 
this one no pray to please him, tother one no talk 
enough ! he find fault with minister,—this one 
proud,-tother one no half sfriek enough in preach¬ 
ing; this man seem to be going fast to heaven, 
that is, he think so himself. Now the minister 
no like his conduct, so he have his eye upon him. 
Well, by and by he miss meeting ; the minister- 
after missing him two or three times, ask som® 
of the Christian people where if Peter ? but no 
body could tell; at last the minister hear about 
him. Peter went one day to hear a grave old mi¬ 
nister preach, and after sermon* Peter talk to the 



227 

old minister* and he run on talking as if he knew 
every thing. The old minister soon find out his 
religion and like him he was afraid all his reli¬ 
gion was in his tongue ; and he ask Peter some 
close questions that puzzle him, and he begin for 
be ashamed. Peter would no mind this if the 
minister had not talk before some of the brethren; 
but the good old gentleman let him know before 
the brethren that he thought little of his religion, 
& begged him to pray the Lord to change his heart; 
for, say the minister, I am fraid you be a stranger 
to heart religion. Now this faithful talk no hum¬ 
ble him and send him to the Lord, but Peter fend¬ 
ed a heap, and from that time he begin to give 
way, and soon went back to his old ways and 
companions, and now laughs at every thing good. 

Sambo. Well, brother, we need pray the Lord 
for keep us humble *tis sad thing when we think 
too much of ourselves, it give the devil great 
vantage of us. 

Davy. Yes, brother, very true. The word of 
the Lord say, “ be not high miudedbut fear, the 
true fear the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.” 
What an humble man St’ Paul was ;—he say, “ I 
am less than the least of all saints.” Again the 
word says, “ Pride goeth before destruction, and 
a haughty spirit before a fall. God resisteth the 
proud, but giveth grace to the humble.” 

Fanny. What a blessed book be the word of 
the Lord. O I love for hear uncle Davy read in 
it ; sometime it fill my hsart full of love to my 
Lord ; sometime it make me hate sin. When 
uncle Davy read how Christ die for sin, and how 
God angry for sin, and how some good men fight 
gainst sin, O I feel like I wish for be free from 
every sinful thought; this make me pray my Lord 
for keep me from all evil. 

Davy. That’s right, sister, the word of God 



228 


is best ef all;—that tell us every thing,—it tell we 
poor servants how to trust the Lord, and to do 
our duty to God and our master;—it tell us how 
to be content and not murmur, and be honest, 
and how wc should love our wives and take earo 
of our children, and try to live in love and peace 
with one another, and as much as we can with e- 
very body. And when the Lord enable us to do 
so, how much better ? lis than to wrangle and 
quarrel and murmur. Why what signify, if we 
do have hard trial in this world ; the Lord e- 
very now and then comfort our hearts, and, by and 
by, we shall be done with all trouble aud sorrow. 

Toney. Aye, and sin too ^brother. Suppose 
we been ever so rich and great, we must been 
have trouble too, and if we no beeD have grace, 
we should no be half so happy as we be now, and 
then agen when we come for die and no grace, O 
how dreadful ! For my part I thank God for the 
gospel more than ever, when I think how many 
poor souls no hear nothing bout it. 

Davy. Yes, brother, we ought to be very 
thankful to God for sending his gospel among us. 
When I was a boy, there was hardly any such 
thing among we black people, but now, bless God, 
most every pl&ntationJiear the word of the Lord; 
and 1 am sure we on this .plantation ought to be 
more thankful than most any people; our master 
and mistress both good people, and I am sure 
would be glad if all we black people was con¬ 
verted. 

Sambo. Our master also been very good in this 
thing ;—he sometime been ask the minister for 
come to him horuse, and stay all night ; ah! then 
we have good time for true ; the minister pray 
and exhort we black people, and tell us how we 
must serve the Lord, aud how the devil tempt the 



229 


dhrietian, and how vve must fight gainst him, 
end tell us all bout our wicked heart, and how 
we must watch and pray, and pray for our fel¬ 
low servants, and all these things ; why, brother 
Davy, sometime it most like heaven. 

Davy. I think most every master would en¬ 
courage religion amoDg his people, was it not for 
the bad conduct of some professors. You know 
my biother, every master is not like ; some ba 
good men, and some bad, but good or bad (hey all 
wish tu have their work done. And if I was 
master I should want my work done too; well, 
if master good man, and the servant pretend to 
be religious, the master expect he will be faith¬ 
ful and honest, no steal himself, and watch gainst 
ether stealing, and be quiet and peaceable and 
not grumble and murmur at every thing; so if 
master a bad man what so likely to make him 
better, as to see his servants honest and faithful 
in their business, and living peaceable among 
themselves;—-by and by he may see religion a good 
thing; and he may love it, and if not, he must be 
very bad for true, if he use his servants worse tor 
being faithful and honest. 

Titus. I tliink, brother Davy, we should some 
time put ourselves in master’s place, then we 
soon been see what w’e expect from our servants. 

Sambo. I think so too, brother. If I been 
master be sure I expect professors be very care¬ 
ful and do every thing right, and mind their wife 
and children, and on Sunday look clean and go to 
meeting. I would say well done, I glad for bee 
you behave well, I glad for find you honest;—that 
my good negro. This make them do more better 
and love master. 

Titus. You know, Sambo, that the way our 
master been do, he no love for see any body idle, 



Le no idle himself. He lore for see the man's 
clothes mended, he then say that man got good 
wife, A Sunday when he see the wife and chil¬ 
dren clean and behave well, he please too much, 
he say howdy ? how your children ? you love 
for go to meeting; this make them feel good and 
love master. I often hear master say, them ne¬ 
gro who no take care of themselves will never 
serve God. 

£atnbo. Brother Davy, you been a professor 
good many year, and must be more better acquain¬ 
ted with the temptations of Satan than we ;—cant 
you tell us bout how for manage him ? I wish 
you talk little upon that. 

Davy. Why brother, the devil is so cunning 
and he have so many sorts of temptations, that it 
is pretty hard to be a match for him, but I will 
tell you how you must do; in the first place, 
live much in prayer ; in the next place never be 
idle when you have done working for your 
master if you be not toe tired, work some for your¬ 
self, the devil always put some mischief in our 
heads when we be idle; then learn to be conleut 
with your state, never mind if some of your fel¬ 
low servants seem better off than you ; you will 
always see some that be worse, and remember 
vou have more than you deservo ; and again, 
take care of pride,-pride is one bad sin, always 
pray for humility, but take care dent try to 
make people think you be more humble than you 
are, and be sure keep a good clear conscience ; 
never tell lie, but stand by truth at all time. 
God Almighty love truth, and devil love lie; 
never steal the least thing from any body, and 
mind your own business, and never trouble any 
body ; and every day pray for more faith in God 
and Chri 9 t, and that you may better nnderstand 



the gospel ; now, brother, if yon mind the&e 
things well, Satan cant hurt you much. 

Titus. Brother Davy you been talk very well. 
I think if we been mind these things well as you 
*ay, the devil no hurt us much. 

Davy. However, Satan always busy, so our 
Lord say we must wateh and pray that we enter 
not into temptation ;—and again the word of the 
Lord , 16 Resist the devil and he will fly from 
you. 5 * Now, brother, we must be very careful 
that we no trust to our own strength, for wliea 
we done all, we be unprofitable servants, every 
thing God do for us he do for Christ sake, Christ 
live for us, Christ die for us, by grace we be 
saved, and by his graee only can we be a match 
for Satan. 

Titus. O that blessed book that tell us so 
niHch bout Jesus Christ. I wish 1 been able to 
read it. 

Davy. Brother Titus, you no too old to 
learn j’l have learned older men than you be s 
if you set your mind to it, you will soon learn^ 
Toney and his wife are both learning and will 
soon be able to read the word of the Lord. 

Sambo. Well, brother Davy, there be one 
thing more I wish you for talk a little upon, 

Davy. What is that brother ? 

Sambo. Suppose one the brethren do some¬ 
thing 1 think been wrong, and nobody but him 
and me know any thing about it ; what must I 
been do ? must 1 tell the minister P 

Davy. No brother, you must tell nobody, be¬ 
fore you talk with the brother himself. Now I 
will read to you what the word of the Lord say 
upon it;—for that tell us very plain how to do. It 
is in the 18th chapter of St, Matthew ; and new 
mind the words j “ Moreover, if thy brother shall 



trepass against tliee, go and tell him his fault* 
between him and thee alone ; if he shall hear 
thee thou hast gained thy brother : but if he 
will not hear thee, then take with thee one or 
two more, that in the mouth of two or three 
witnesses every word may be established, ami if 
he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the 
church.” Now you see, my brother, this very 
plain. If thy brother offend thee, you must not 
go tell any body about it, you must not wait for 
his coming to you, but you mast go to him, and 
tell him his fault, by ynur two selves ; if he con¬ 
fess his fault, why, you forgive him and no talk 
of it to auy body. If he no satisfy you, then 
you take one or two with you, then you tell him 
his fault before them two brothers ; well if he 
humble and confess, then you forgive him, then 
you no talk any more about it to auy body ; but 
if he stout and no confess, then go to the minis¬ 
ter, and he will tell you what to do; now do you 
understand ? 

Sambo. Thank you, brother, I been under*, 
stand very well. I hope the Lord will enable 
me to mind it. 

Toney. Well, my brethren, to-morrow our 
minister preach, and brother Davy and me will 
beg him for come pray with us and give us some 
advice before we been part, he one very good man 
and love for teaeh we black people. 

Fanny. Our minister been one good man for 
true, all the black people love him too much, he 
talk so plain we poor black people understand 
most every word he say, and some time he talk to 
the ehildren and tell them for pray, and no tell 
lie, nor say bad words, but mind what their fa¬ 
ther and mother been say to them, and he talk se 
good and so loring that the children love him 
most as much as we do. 



233 


Sambo. Then I sure you ought to be very 
thankful and mind what he say, and pray God 
for bless his work among you. 

At the desire of Davy and Toney the minister 
came in the evening, when some of those who 
had lately made a profession, and the brethren 
who came to visit Toney, were waiting to hear 
him exhort them. He spoke to them in the fol¬ 
lowing manner : 

Your brethren, Davy and Toney, desired me 
to come and pray with you, and drop a word of 
advice to you ; my time is short, I cannot at pre¬ 
sent say much; I would observe it gives me 
pleasure to see you so desirous of instruction.— 
You, my brethren, have made a profession of re¬ 
ligion. You will ever remember the eyes of the 
world will be upon you to wait for your halting 
and turning back into sin. The eyes of the 
church will also be upon you to observe your 
conduct, and watch for your souls ; but what a- 
bove all should make you fear to do wrong and 
wicked is, the eyes of God are continually on 
you. You will therefore always try to act as in 
his awful presence ; ever strive to keep a good 
conscience, giving no offence neither to God nor 
man. Let your whole conduct be sober and 
9teady as becometh men professing godliness.— 
Learn to be content with such things as you have, 
and guard against a murmuring, discontented 
spirit. Live a life of prayer and dependence on 
God. Let your master, the people of the world, 
and your fellow-servants, see that you endeavor 
to live a pious godly life, agreeably to your pro¬ 
fession in all honesty and sobriety. When you 
have an opportunity, talk to yonr fellow ser¬ 
vants about their soul’s concerns and pray daily 
for their conversion. Guard against pride and 
V 2 



self-conceit; humility is a lovely grace, and 
shines no where more than in a servant. Ba 
careful to attend public worship when you have 
opportunity, and be regular and strict in se¬ 
cret and family prayer. Live in love with your 
wives and keep.to them only. Be careful of yuur 
children, that they do not tell lies and use bad 
words, and let them know how wicked it is to 
steal. Learn to make home the most agreeably 
ef any place to you, then you will not want to 
ramble from one plantation to another, and so be 
preserved from many temptations and hurtful 
snares. Try and learn to read, that you may 
know for yourselves what the word of the Lord 
contains/ Mind your master’s business, and be 
obedient to him in all things, pray daily for him 
and his family. Learn to live by faith on the 
Son of God, who loved us, and gave himself for 
ns. Let your whole lives be such as you will 
wish they had been when you come to die. Thus 
you will grow in piety as you grow in years, and 
grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Chirst. Then, when you come 
to die, the Lord will receive you into that world 
of joy and peace, where sin and sorrow will for¬ 
ever cease, and where all tears will be wiped 
from your eyes ; where you will see your Jesus, 
and be made like him, and with all the redeemed 
of the Lord, will sing the song of Moses and the 
Lamb.-—Amen, 



The following piece taken from the Christian 
Obserfee will be a sufficient answer to those 
who assert the ignorance of negroes to be such 
as to incapacitate them for deriving benefit 
from religious instruction. 

To the EdiUJi" of the Christian Observer. 

I enclose you a paper, which, though it is 
not dated, must, I think, from its situation in my 
journal of occurrences, have been written in the 
close of the year 1801. It is word for word, as 
nearly as recollection at the time enabled me to 
write it down, tlie Bubstanee of a conversation 
which passed between me and a poor man, all 
w'hose connections were Catholics, but who con¬ 
stantly attended my church himself. 1 will Dot, 
however, anticipate his character, which will 
appear from the recital. 

Extract from passing Occurrences. 

« There is a poor man who constantly fre¬ 
quents my church. On no publie occasion, un¬ 
less prevented by illness, have I missed him out 
ef it. His name is Barny, and he is generally 
esteemed a sort of idiot : yet simple as he evi¬ 
dently is, his knowledge in spiritual things is 
enough to shame many a wiser head. He gets 
his subsistence by going among the parishioners, 
who make an annual subscription for him to pro- 



236 


wire him cUthes.* Having just *come to make 
his usual application to me on this subject, and 
Amanda having remarked to me, that she had 
observed Barny apparently much affected by 
parts ef my discourses, which she conceived he 
eould not understand, I resolved to seize the op. 
portunity of inquiring from himself, whether he 
received any benefit from coming to church. The 
following is the conversation that passed between 
ns.*— 

“ I believe you love to go to church, Bar¬ 
my P”— 44 I do.” 

44 Why do you lore going to church ?**— 44 I 
hear the word, I hear good words there.*' 

44 What do you hear ?”— 44 I hear that the blood 
of Jesus washes away my sins, all my sins.’* 

“ Do you love Jesus Christ, Barny ?’*—“ I do, 
sir. 9 * 

44 How do you know that you love him ?’ 9 —. 
4 * He is precious to me.” 

44 Do you ever recollect, Barny, when he was 
not precious to you.”— 44 Ido.” 

44 Do you ever pray to God, Barny ?”-»- <4 I do, 
sir, in secret, coming along.* 9 

“ Do you think God hears you ?’*— 44 I do. 9 * 

44 Why do you think so “He puts it into 
the people’s hearts to help me—the summer 
when I had scarce a morsel to eat.” 

44 You think, then, it was God who brought 
you through the dear summer ? 99 —>“It was.* 9 
44 Barny ! are you afraid to die ? 9 *— 44 If my 
soul was safe, I would wish to die—the night.”$ 
“ Why, Barny i would you wish tndie, and go 

* We have no poor rates in Ireland 

* The night—t <rihis njght } I should think it Wrong to 
amend Sarny's language, 



237 

Into the grave ?*'—“ I would—I would wish to 
be with ray Lord.’* 

** Barny, do you recollect, when I was a child 
you used to speak bad words : do you say any 
had words now P*’—“No. no 1** (With empha¬ 
sis.) 

“ Are you sorry for having talked these bad 
words ?”—“ lam—very sorry.* 9 

*i Barny! Does any person talk with you about 
religion. 5 *— JVo person. 9 * _ 

“ How have you then learned to give me tbes© 
answers ?’*—“l learn by the blood of Jesus Christ, 
that he will wash away ir.y sins—And the Lord 
God wash away all my sins that I have commit¬ 
ted.** 

The reader will be inclined to think, that Bar* 
ny< whose action and manner, and a little stop¬ 
page in his speech, added double weight to every 
thiDg he said, is not the fool he is generally sup¬ 
posed to be. But I will venture to affirm, that 
Barny eould not give satisfaction upon any other 
subject. Barny can give no account about his owa 
&&e, and, though living in tbe country all his 
life, knows not, I believe, the parts of a plough, 
nor can he perform any part of farming work. 
But Barny knows that he is a sinner , and that ho 
has a Saviour, who is able to save such sinners as 
he. Barny loves the Book which reveals such a 
Saviour to him, and to wait in those courts where 
he hears good words about him whom he has 
found to he precious to his soul. Barny has not 
a mere cant about religion; for the change ia 
Barny’s conduct shews a change in his heart , aud 
that he is really the character he processes him¬ 
self to be. One remarkable trait in that charac¬ 
ter we ought not to overlook. It is this ; that 
Jbe looks through the creatures to God, and es- 



gS8 

teems it as an answer to prayer, “that the pea- 
pie help him and ia particular, that being 
perfectly helpless himself, he was brought 
through these last severe times. Many other 
reflections naturally present themselves from this 
little history; but they are obvious, and I omit 
them. 

Here, infidelity ! is a lesson Tor you, if any 
thing cau give you instruction. I defy you to 
produce such an instance of the benefit arising 
from your teaching. Here is a person reclaimed 
from sin, and evidently taught of God, when his 
own reasoning powers were weak, and through 
the medium of those very means of grace which 
you affeet to despise. 

The above, sir, were my reflections on the his¬ 
tory of poor Barny, in the year 1801 ; and they 
are still the same. 1 have now only to add, that 
he is gone to his reward. He continued the same 
faithful attendance in the courts of the Lord's 
house that he had been accustomed to give, and I 
had other conversations with him similar to the 
above ; but missing him for some Sundays iu his 
favourite place of resort, wheuee he derived so 
much pleasure and profit, 1 found upon inquiry 
that he was no more. His friends, if he had any 
I can call so, had neither religion nor kindness 
enough to inform me of his illness, or 1 should 
have hastened to have smoothed his pillow iu 
his sickness, and exhilirated his sinking spirits, 
by talking of that Lord whom he loved so well. 
His portion is in heaven, and his memory will he 
perpetuated in your pages. 

I am, Sir, 

Yaur obedient servant, 


IRIS*.